sqlite: upgrade to 3.31.1, closes #2471

Tue, 04 Feb 2020 09:42:30 +0100

author
David Demelier <markand@malikania.fr>
date
Tue, 04 Feb 2020 09:42:30 +0100
changeset 86
46cf089188ab
parent 85
06816540754d
child 87
00ef6d3553bd

sqlite: upgrade to 3.31.1, closes #2471

VERSION.libsqlite.txt file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
libsqlite/sqlite3.c file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
libsqlite/sqlite3.h file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
libsqlite/sqlite3ext.h file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
--- a/VERSION.libsqlite.txt	Thu Oct 24 21:05:00 2019 +0000
+++ b/VERSION.libsqlite.txt	Tue Feb 04 09:42:30 2020 +0100
@@ -1,1 +1,1 @@
-3.29.0
+3.31.1
--- a/libsqlite/sqlite3.c	Thu Oct 24 21:05:00 2019 +0000
+++ b/libsqlite/sqlite3.c	Tue Feb 04 09:42:30 2020 +0100
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
 /******************************************************************************
 ** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
-** version 3.29.0.  By combining all the individual C code files into this
+** version 3.31.1.  By combining all the individual C code files into this
 ** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a single translation
 ** unit.  This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
 ** possible if the files were compiled separately.  Performance improvements
@@ -331,8 +331,6 @@
 #endif
 #if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4)
   "ENABLE_STAT4",
-#elif defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3)
-  "ENABLE_STAT3",
 #endif
 #if SQLITE_ENABLE_STMTVTAB
   "ENABLE_STMTVTAB",
@@ -1167,9 +1165,9 @@
 ** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
 ** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
 */
-#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.29.0"
-#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3029000
-#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2019-07-10 17:32:03 fc82b73eaac8b36950e527f12c4b5dc1e147e6f4ad2217ae43ad82882a88bfa6"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.31.1"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3031001
+#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2020-01-27 19:55:54 3bfa9cc97da10598521b342961df8f5f68c7388fa117345eeb516eaa837bb4d6"
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
@@ -1560,6 +1558,7 @@
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_FULLPATH       (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (3<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_CONVPATH       (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (4<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_DIRTYWAL       (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (5<<8)) /* Not Used */
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_SYMLINK        (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (6<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB            (SQLITE_CORRUPT | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CORRUPT_SEQUENCE        (SQLITE_CORRUPT | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_RECOVERY       (SQLITE_READONLY | (1<<8))
@@ -1579,11 +1578,13 @@
 #define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE       (SQLITE_CONSTRAINT | (8<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_VTAB         (SQLITE_CONSTRAINT | (9<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_ROWID        (SQLITE_CONSTRAINT |(10<<8))
+#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_PINNED       (SQLITE_CONSTRAINT |(11<<8))
 #define SQLITE_NOTICE_RECOVER_WAL      (SQLITE_NOTICE | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_NOTICE_RECOVER_ROLLBACK (SQLITE_NOTICE | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_WARNING_AUTOINDEX       (SQLITE_WARNING | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_AUTH_USER               (SQLITE_AUTH | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_OK_LOAD_PERMANENTLY     (SQLITE_OK | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_OK_SYMLINK              (SQLITE_OK | (2<<8))
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations
@@ -1612,6 +1613,7 @@
 #define SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE      0x00020000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
 #define SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE     0x00040000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
 #define SQLITE_OPEN_WAL              0x00080000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW         0x01000000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
 
 /* Reserved:                         0x00F00000 */
 
@@ -2023,16 +2025,16 @@
 ** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER]
 ** file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
 ** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
-** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
+** to the connection's busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void**)
 ** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
-** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
+** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connection's
 ** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
 ** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
 ** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
 ** current operation.
 **
 ** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME]]
-** ^Application can invoke the [SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME] file-control
+** ^Applications can invoke the [SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME] file-control
 ** to have SQLite generate a
 ** temporary filename using the same algorithm that is followed to generate
 ** temporary filenames for TEMP tables and other internal uses.  The
@@ -2145,12 +2147,18 @@
 ** not provide a mechanism to detect changes to MAIN only.  Also, the
 ** [sqlite3_total_changes()] interface responds to internal changes only and
 ** omits changes made by other database connections.  The
-** [PRAGMA data_version] command provide a mechanism to detect changes to
+** [PRAGMA data_version] command provides a mechanism to detect changes to
 ** a single attached database that occur due to other database connections,
 ** but omits changes implemented by the database connection on which it is
 ** called.  This file control is the only mechanism to detect changes that
 ** happen either internally or externally and that are associated with
 ** a particular attached database.
+**
+** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_CKPT_DONE]]
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_CKPT_DONE] opcode is invoked from within a checkpoint
+** in wal mode after the client has finished copying pages from the wal
+** file to the database file, but before the *-shm file is updated to
+** record the fact that the pages have been checkpointed.
 ** </ul>
 */
 #define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE               1
@@ -2188,6 +2196,7 @@
 #define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCK_TIMEOUT           34
 #define SQLITE_FCNTL_DATA_VERSION           35
 #define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT             36
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CKPT_DONE              37
 
 /* deprecated names */
 #define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE      SQLITE_FCNTL_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE
@@ -2233,10 +2242,10 @@
 ** to 3 with SQLite [version 3.7.6] on [dateof:3.7.6].  Additional fields
 ** may be appended to the sqlite3_vfs object and the iVersion value
 ** may increase again in future versions of SQLite.
-** Note that the structure
-** of the sqlite3_vfs object changes in the transition from
+** Note that due to an oversight, the structure
+** of the sqlite3_vfs object changed in the transition from
 ** SQLite [version 3.5.9] to [version 3.6.0] on [dateof:3.6.0]
-** and yet the iVersion field was not modified.
+** and yet the iVersion field was not increased.
 **
 ** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
 ** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
@@ -2327,7 +2336,7 @@
 ** for exclusive access.
 **
 ** ^At least szOsFile bytes of memory are allocated by SQLite
-** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
+** to hold the [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
 ** argument to xOpen.  The xOpen method does not have to
 ** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.  Note that
 ** the xOpen method must set the sqlite3_file.pMethods to either
@@ -2664,7 +2673,7 @@
 ** that causes the corresponding memory allocation to fail.
 **
 ** The xInit method initializes the memory allocator.  For example,
-** it might allocate any require mutexes or initialize internal data
+** it might allocate any required mutexes or initialize internal data
 ** structures.  The xShutdown method is invoked (indirectly) by
 ** [sqlite3_shutdown()] and should deallocate any resources acquired
 ** by xInit.  The pAppData pointer is used as the only parameter to
@@ -2786,6 +2795,7 @@
 ** memory allocation statistics. ^(When memory allocation statistics are
 ** disabled, the following SQLite interfaces become non-operational:
 **   <ul>
+**   <li> [sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64()]
 **   <li> [sqlite3_memory_used()]
 **   <li> [sqlite3_memory_highwater()]
 **   <li> [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()]
@@ -2804,7 +2814,7 @@
 ** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE option specifies a memory pool
 ** that SQLite can use for the database page cache with the default page
 ** cache implementation.  
-** This configuration option is a no-op if an application-define page
+** This configuration option is a no-op if an application-defined page
 ** cache implementation is loaded using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2].
 ** ^There are three arguments to SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE: A pointer to
 ** 8-byte aligned memory (pMem), the size of each page cache line (sz),
@@ -3137,6 +3147,17 @@
 ** following this call.  The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
 ** which case the trigger setting is not reported back. </dd>
 **
+** [[SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_VIEW]]
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_VIEW</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable [CREATE VIEW | views].
+** There should be two additional arguments.
+** The first argument is an integer which is 0 to disable views,
+** positive to enable views or negative to leave the setting unchanged.
+** The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which
+** is written 0 or 1 to indicate whether views are disabled or enabled
+** following this call.  The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
+** which case the view setting is not reported back. </dd>
+**
 ** [[SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FTS3_TOKENIZER]]
 ** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FTS3_TOKENIZER</dt>
 ** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable the
@@ -3278,7 +3299,7 @@
 ** [[SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DML]]
 ** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DML</td>
 ** <dd>The SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DML option activates or deactivates
-** the legacy [double-quoted string literal] misfeature for DML statement
+** the legacy [double-quoted string literal] misfeature for DML statements
 ** only, that is DELETE, INSERT, SELECT, and UPDATE statements. The
 ** default value of this setting is determined by the [-DSQLITE_DQS]
 ** compile-time option.
@@ -3292,6 +3313,49 @@
 ** default value of this setting is determined by the [-DSQLITE_DQS]
 ** compile-time option.
 ** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA]]
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA</td>
+** <dd>The SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA option tells SQLite to
+** assume that database schemas (the contents of the [sqlite_master] tables)
+** are untainted by malicious content.
+** When the SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA option is disabled, SQLite
+** takes additional defensive steps to protect the application from harm
+** including:
+** <ul>
+** <li> Prohibit the use of SQL functions inside triggers, views,
+** CHECK constraints, DEFAULT clauses, expression indexes, 
+** partial indexes, or generated columns
+** unless those functions are tagged with [SQLITE_INNOCUOUS].
+** <li> Prohibit the use of virtual tables inside of triggers or views
+** unless those virtual tables are tagged with [SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS].
+** </ul>
+** This setting defaults to "on" for legacy compatibility, however
+** all applications are advised to turn it off if possible. This setting
+** can also be controlled using the [PRAGMA trusted_schema] statement.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT]]
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT</td>
+** <dd>The SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT option activates or deactivates
+** the legacy file format flag.  When activated, this flag causes all newly
+** created database file to have a schema format version number (the 4-byte
+** integer found at offset 44 into the database header) of 1.  This in turn
+** means that the resulting database file will be readable and writable by
+** any SQLite version back to 3.0.0 ([dateof:3.0.0]).  Without this setting,
+** newly created databases are generally not understandable by SQLite versions
+** prior to 3.3.0 ([dateof:3.3.0]).  As these words are written, there
+** is now scarcely any need to generated database files that are compatible 
+** all the way back to version 3.0.0, and so this setting is of little
+** practical use, but is provided so that SQLite can continue to claim the
+** ability to generate new database files that are compatible with  version
+** 3.0.0.
+** <p>Note that when the SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT setting is on,
+** the [VACUUM] command will fail with an obscure error when attempting to
+** process a table with generated columns and a descending index.  This is
+** not considered a bug since SQLite versions 3.3.0 and earlier do not support
+** either generated columns or decending indexes.
+** </dd>
 ** </dl>
 */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAINDBNAME            1000 /* const char* */
@@ -3309,7 +3373,10 @@
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_ALTER_TABLE    1012 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DML               1013 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DDL               1014 /* int int* */
-#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAX                   1014 /* Largest DBCONFIG */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_VIEW           1015 /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT    1016 /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA        1017 /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAX                   1017 /* Largest DBCONFIG */
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes
@@ -3515,7 +3582,7 @@
 ** ^The sqlite3_interrupt(D) call is in effect until all currently running
 ** SQL statements on [database connection] D complete.  ^Any new SQL statements
 ** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call and before the 
-** running statements reaches zero are interrupted as if they had been
+** running statement count reaches zero are interrupted as if they had been
 ** running prior to the sqlite3_interrupt() call.  ^New SQL statements
 ** that are started after the running statement count reaches zero are
 ** not effected by the sqlite3_interrupt().
@@ -3683,9 +3750,9 @@
 **        Cindy       | 21
 ** </pre></blockquote>
 **
-** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
+** There are two columns (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
 ** result table has 8 entries.  Suppose the result table is stored
-** in an array names azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
+** in an array named azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
 **
 ** <blockquote><pre>
 **        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
@@ -3778,7 +3845,7 @@
 **
 ** The SQLite core uses these three routines for all of its own
 ** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
-** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
+** does not include operating-system specific [VFS] implementation.  The
 ** Windows VFS uses native malloc() and free() for some operations.
 **
 ** ^The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
@@ -3839,19 +3906,6 @@
 ** 4 byte boundary if the [SQLITE_4_BYTE_ALIGNED_MALLOC] compile-time
 ** option is used.
 **
-** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
-** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
-** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
-** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be used.
-**
-** Prior to SQLite version 3.7.10, the Windows OS interface layer called
-** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
-** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
-** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular Windows
-** installation.  Memory allocation errors were detected, but
-** they were reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
-** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
-**
 ** The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
 ** must be either NULL or else pointers obtained from a prior
 ** invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that have
@@ -3900,7 +3954,7 @@
 ** SQLite contains a high-quality pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) used to
 ** select random [ROWID | ROWIDs] when inserting new records into a table that
 ** already uses the largest possible [ROWID].  The PRNG is also used for
-** the build-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions.  This interface allows
+** the built-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions.  This interface allows
 ** applications to access the same PRNG for other purposes.
 **
 ** ^A call to this routine stores N bytes of randomness into buffer P.
@@ -4274,10 +4328,8 @@
 ** The sqlite3_open_v2() interface works like sqlite3_open()
 ** except that it accepts two additional parameters for additional control
 ** over the new database connection.  ^(The flags parameter to
-** sqlite3_open_v2() can take one of
-** the following three values, optionally combined with the 
-** [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX], [SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX], [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE],
-** [SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE], and/or [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flags:)^
+** sqlite3_open_v2() must include, at a minimum, one of the following
+** three flag combinations:)^
 **
 ** <dl>
 ** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]</dt>
@@ -4295,23 +4347,51 @@
 ** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open16().</dd>)^
 ** </dl>
 **
+** In addition to the required flags, the following optional flags are
+** also supported:
+**
+** <dl>
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_URI]</dt>
+** <dd>The filename can be interpreted as a URI if this flag is set.</dd>)^
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_MEMORY]</dt>
+** <dd>The database will be opened as an in-memory database.  The database
+** is named by the "filename" argument for the purposes of cache-sharing,
+** if shared cache mode is enabled, but the "filename" is otherwise ignored.
+** </dd>)^
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX]</dt>
+** <dd>The new database connection will use the "multi-thread"
+** [threading mode].)^  This means that separate threads are allowed
+** to use SQLite at the same time, as long as each thread is using
+** a different [database connection].
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX]</dt>
+** <dd>The new database connection will use the "serialized"
+** [threading mode].)^  This means the multiple threads can safely
+** attempt to use the same database connection at the same time.
+** (Mutexes will block any actual concurrency, but in this mode
+** there is no harm in trying.)
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened [shared cache] enabled, overriding
+** the default shared cache setting provided by
+** [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()].)^
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened [shared cache] disabled, overriding
+** the default shared cache setting provided by
+** [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()].)^
+**
+** [[OPEN_NOFOLLOW]] ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW]</dt>
+** <dd>The database filename is not allowed to be a symbolic link</dd>
+** </dl>)^
+**
 ** If the 3rd parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is not one of the
-** combinations shown above optionally combined with other
+** required combinations shown above optionally combined with other
 ** [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY | SQLITE_OPEN_* bits]
 ** then the behavior is undefined.
 **
-** ^If the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag is set, then the database connection
-** opens in the multi-thread [threading mode] as long as the single-thread
-** mode has not been set at compile-time or start-time.  ^If the
-** [SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX] flag is set then the database connection opens
-** in the serialized [threading mode] unless single-thread was
-** previously selected at compile-time or start-time.
-** ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE] flag causes the database connection to be
-** eligible to use [shared cache mode], regardless of whether or not shared
-** cache is enabled using [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()].  ^The
-** [SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE] flag causes the database connection to not
-** participate in [shared cache mode] even if it is enabled.
-**
 ** ^The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
 ** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system interface that
 ** the new database connection should use.  ^If the fourth parameter is
@@ -4491,17 +4571,16 @@
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Obtain Values For URI Parameters
 **
-** These are utility routines, useful to VFS implementations, that check
-** to see if a database file was a URI that contained a specific query 
+** These are utility routines, useful to [VFS|custom VFS implementations],
+** that check if a database file was a URI that contained a specific query 
 ** parameter, and if so obtains the value of that query parameter.
 **
 ** If F is the database filename pointer passed into the xOpen() method of 
-** a VFS implementation when the flags parameter to xOpen() has one or 
-** more of the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] or [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB] bits set and
-** P is the name of the query parameter, then
+** a VFS implementation or it is the return value of [sqlite3_db_filename()]
+** and if P is the name of the query parameter, then
 ** sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns the value of the P
 ** parameter if it exists or a NULL pointer if P does not appear as a 
-** query parameter on F.  If P is a query parameter of F
+** query parameter on F.  If P is a query parameter of F and it
 ** has no explicit value, then sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns
 ** a pointer to an empty string.
 **
@@ -4513,25 +4592,72 @@
 ** sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) routines returns false (0) if the value of
 ** query parameter P is one of "no", "false", or "off" in any case or
 ** if the value begins with a numeric zero.  If P is not a query
-** parameter on F or if the value of P is does not match any of the
+** parameter on F or if the value of P does not match any of the
 ** above, then sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) returns (B!=0).
 **
 ** The sqlite3_uri_int64(F,P,D) routine converts the value of P into a
 ** 64-bit signed integer and returns that integer, or D if P does not
 ** exist.  If the value of P is something other than an integer, then
 ** zero is returned.
+**
+** The sqlite3_uri_key(F,N) returns a pointer to the name (not
+** the value) of the N-th query parameter for filename F, or a NULL
+** pointer if N is less than zero or greater than the number of query
+** parameters minus 1.  The N value is zero-based so N should be 0 to obtain
+** the name of the first query parameter, 1 for the second parameter, and
+** so forth.
 ** 
 ** If F is a NULL pointer, then sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns NULL and
 ** sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) returns B.  If F is not a NULL pointer and
-** is not a database file pathname pointer that SQLite passed into the xOpen
-** VFS method, then the behavior of this routine is undefined and probably
-** undesirable.
+** is not a database file pathname pointer that the SQLite core passed
+** into the xOpen VFS method, then the behavior of this routine is undefined
+** and probably undesirable.
+**
+** Beginning with SQLite [version 3.31.0] ([dateof:3.31.0]) the input F
+** parameter can also be the name of a rollback journal file or WAL file
+** in addition to the main database file.  Prior to version 3.31.0, these
+** routines would only work if F was the name of the main database file.
+** When the F parameter is the name of the rollback journal or WAL file,
+** it has access to all the same query parameters as were found on the
+** main database file.
 **
 ** See the [URI filename] documentation for additional information.
 */
 SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_uri_parameter(const char *zFilename, const char *zParam);
 SQLITE_API int sqlite3_uri_boolean(const char *zFile, const char *zParam, int bDefault);
 SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_uri_int64(const char*, const char*, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_uri_key(const char *zFilename, int N);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF:  Translate filenames
+**
+** These routines are available to [VFS|custom VFS implementations] for
+** translating filenames between the main database file, the journal file,
+** and the WAL file.
+**
+** If F is the name of an sqlite database file, journal file, or WAL file
+** passed by the SQLite core into the VFS, then sqlite3_filename_database(F)
+** returns the name of the corresponding database file.
+**
+** If F is the name of an sqlite database file, journal file, or WAL file
+** passed by the SQLite core into the VFS, or if F is a database filename
+** obtained from [sqlite3_db_filename()], then sqlite3_filename_journal(F)
+** returns the name of the corresponding rollback journal file.
+**
+** If F is the name of an sqlite database file, journal file, or WAL file
+** that was passed by the SQLite core into the VFS, or if F is a database
+** filename obtained from [sqlite3_db_filename()], then
+** sqlite3_filename_wal(F) returns the name of the corresponding
+** WAL file.
+**
+** In all of the above, if F is not the name of a database, journal or WAL
+** filename passed into the VFS from the SQLite core and F is not the
+** return value from [sqlite3_db_filename()], then the result is
+** undefined and is likely a memory access violation.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_filename_database(const char*);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_filename_journal(const char*);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_filename_wal(const char*);
 
 
 /*
@@ -4850,15 +4976,15 @@
 ** </li>
 **
 ** <li>
-** ^If the specific value bound to [parameter | host parameter] in the 
+** ^If the specific value bound to a [parameter | host parameter] in the 
 ** WHERE clause might influence the choice of query plan for a statement,
 ** then the statement will be automatically recompiled, as if there had been 
-** a schema change, on the first  [sqlite3_step()] call following any change
+** a schema change, on the first [sqlite3_step()] call following any change
 ** to the [sqlite3_bind_text | bindings] of that [parameter]. 
-** ^The specific value of WHERE-clause [parameter] might influence the 
+** ^The specific value of a WHERE-clause [parameter] might influence the 
 ** choice of query plan if the parameter is the left-hand side of a [LIKE]
 ** or [GLOB] operator or if the parameter is compared to an indexed column
-** and the [SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3] compile-time option is enabled.
+** and the [SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4] compile-time option is enabled.
 ** </li>
 ** </ol>
 **
@@ -5364,7 +5490,7 @@
 **
 ** ^If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression or
 ** subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions return
-** NULL.  ^These routine might also return NULL if a memory allocation error
+** NULL.  ^These routines might also return NULL if a memory allocation error
 ** occurs.  ^Otherwise, they return the name of the attached database, table,
 ** or column that query result column was extracted from.
 **
@@ -5374,10 +5500,6 @@
 ** ^These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the
 ** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol.
 **
-** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
-** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
-** undefined.
-**
 ** If two or more threads call one or more
 ** [sqlite3_column_database_name | column metadata interfaces]
 ** for the same [prepared statement] and result column
@@ -5514,7 +5636,7 @@
 ** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) interface returns the number of columns in the
 ** current row of the result set of [prepared statement] P.
 ** ^If prepared statement P does not have results ready to return
-** (via calls to the [sqlite3_column_int | sqlite3_column_*()] of
+** (via calls to the [sqlite3_column_int | sqlite3_column()] family of
 ** interfaces) then sqlite3_data_count(P) returns 0.
 ** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine also returns 0 if P is a NULL pointer.
 ** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine returns 0 if the previous call to
@@ -5838,8 +5960,6 @@
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions
 ** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines}
-** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL function}
-** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL functions}
 ** METHOD: sqlite3
 **
 ** ^These functions (collectively known as "function creation routines")
@@ -5893,6 +6013,23 @@
 ** perform additional optimizations on deterministic functions, so use
 ** of the [SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC] flag is recommended where possible.
 **
+** ^The fourth parameter may also optionally include the [SQLITE_DIRECTONLY]
+** flag, which if present prevents the function from being invoked from
+** within VIEWs, TRIGGERs, CHECK constraints, generated column expressions,
+** index expressions, or the WHERE clause of partial indexes.
+**
+** <span style="background-color:#ffff90;">
+** For best security, the [SQLITE_DIRECTONLY] flag is recommended for
+** all application-defined SQL functions that do not need to be
+** used inside of triggers, view, CHECK constraints, or other elements of
+** the database schema.  This flags is especially recommended for SQL 
+** functions that have side effects or reveal internal application state.
+** Without this flag, an attacker might be able to modify the schema of
+** a database file to include invocations of the function with parameters
+** chosen by the attacker, which the application will then execute when
+** the database file is opened and read.
+** </span>
+**
 ** ^(The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation of the
 ** function can gain access to this pointer using [sqlite3_user_data()].)^
 **
@@ -6009,8 +6146,68 @@
 ** [SQLITE_UTF8 | preferred text encoding] as the fourth argument
 ** to [sqlite3_create_function()], [sqlite3_create_function16()], or
 ** [sqlite3_create_function_v2()].
-*/
-#define SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC    0x800
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC]] <dt>SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC</dt><dd>
+** The SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC flag means that the new function always gives
+** the same output when the input parameters are the same.
+** The [abs|abs() function] is deterministic, for example, but
+** [randomblob|randomblob()] is not.  Functions must
+** be deterministic in order to be used in certain contexts such as
+** with the WHERE clause of [partial indexes] or in [generated columns].
+** SQLite might also optimize deterministic functions by factoring them
+** out of inner loops.
+** </dd>
+** 
+** [[SQLITE_DIRECTONLY]] <dt>SQLITE_DIRECTONLY</dt><dd>
+** The SQLITE_DIRECTONLY flag means that the function may only be invoked
+** from top-level SQL, and cannot be used in VIEWs or TRIGGERs nor in 
+** schema structures such as [CHECK constraints], [DEFAULT clauses],
+** [expression indexes], [partial indexes], or [generated columns].
+** The SQLITE_DIRECTONLY flags is a security feature which is recommended
+** for all [application-defined SQL functions], and especially for functions
+** that have side-effects or that could potentially leak sensitive
+** information.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_INNOCUOUS]] <dt>SQLITE_INNOCUOUS</dt><dd>
+** The SQLITE_INNOCUOUS flag means that the function is unlikely
+** to cause problems even if misused.  An innocuous function should have
+** no side effects and should not depend on any values other than its
+** input parameters. The [abs|abs() function] is an example of an
+** innocuous function.
+** The [load_extension() SQL function] is not innocuous because of its
+** side effects.
+** <p> SQLITE_INNOCUOUS is similar to SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC, but is not
+** exactly the same.  The [random|random() function] is an example of a
+** function that is innocuous but not deterministic.
+** <p>Some heightened security settings
+** ([SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA] and [PRAGMA trusted_schema=OFF])
+** disable the use of SQL functions inside views and triggers and in
+** schema structures such as [CHECK constraints], [DEFAULT clauses],
+** [expression indexes], [partial indexes], and [generated columns] unless
+** the function is tagged with SQLITE_INNOCUOUS.  Most built-in functions
+** are innocuous.  Developers are advised to avoid using the
+** SQLITE_INNOCUOUS flag for application-defined functions unless the
+** function has been carefully audited and found to be free of potentially
+** security-adverse side-effects and information-leaks.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_SUBTYPE]] <dt>SQLITE_SUBTYPE</dt><dd>
+** The SQLITE_SUBTYPE flag indicates to SQLite that a function may call
+** [sqlite3_value_subtype()] to inspect the sub-types of its arguments.
+** Specifying this flag makes no difference for scalar or aggregate user
+** functions. However, if it is not specified for a user-defined window
+** function, then any sub-types belonging to arguments passed to the window
+** function may be discarded before the window function is called (i.e.
+** sqlite3_value_subtype() will always return 0).
+** </dd>
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC    0x000000800
+#define SQLITE_DIRECTONLY       0x000080000
+#define SQLITE_SUBTYPE          0x000100000
+#define SQLITE_INNOCUOUS        0x000200000
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Functions
@@ -6069,8 +6266,8 @@
 **
 ** These routines extract type, size, and content information from
 ** [protected sqlite3_value] objects.  Protected sqlite3_value objects
-** are used to pass parameter information into implementation of
-** [application-defined SQL functions] and [virtual tables].
+** are used to pass parameter information into the functions that
+** implement [application-defined SQL functions] and [virtual tables].
 **
 ** These routines work only with [protected sqlite3_value] objects.
 ** Any attempt to use these routines on an [unprotected sqlite3_value]
@@ -6127,7 +6324,7 @@
 ** ^The sqlite3_value_frombind(X) interface returns non-zero if the
 ** value X originated from one of the [sqlite3_bind_int|sqlite3_bind()]
 ** interfaces.  ^If X comes from an SQL literal value, or a table column,
-** and expression, then sqlite3_value_frombind(X) returns zero.
+** or an expression, then sqlite3_value_frombind(X) returns zero.
 **
 ** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer returned
 ** from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
@@ -6213,8 +6410,8 @@
 ** routine to allocate memory for storing their state.
 **
 ** ^The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) routine is called 
-** for a particular aggregate function, SQLite
-** allocates N of memory, zeroes out that memory, and returns a pointer
+** for a particular aggregate function, SQLite allocates
+** N bytes of memory, zeroes out that memory, and returns a pointer
 ** to the new memory. ^On second and subsequent calls to
 ** sqlite3_aggregate_context() for the same aggregate function instance,
 ** the same buffer is returned.  Sqlite3_aggregate_context() is normally
@@ -6231,7 +6428,7 @@
 **
 ** ^(The amount of space allocated by sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) is
 ** determined by the N parameter on first successful call.  Changing the
-** value of N in subsequent call to sqlite3_aggregate_context() within
+** value of N in any subsequents call to sqlite3_aggregate_context() within
 ** the same aggregate function instance will not resize the memory
 ** allocation.)^  Within the xFinal callback, it is customary to set
 ** N=0 in calls to sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) so that no 
@@ -6542,7 +6739,7 @@
 ** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED].
 ** </ul>)^
 ** ^The eTextRep argument determines the encoding of strings passed
-** to the collating function callback, xCallback.
+** to the collating function callback, xCompare.
 ** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16] and [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] values for eTextRep
 ** force strings to be UTF16 with native byte order.
 ** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] value for eTextRep forces strings to begin
@@ -6551,18 +6748,19 @@
 ** ^The fourth argument, pArg, is an application data pointer that is passed
 ** through as the first argument to the collating function callback.
 **
-** ^The fifth argument, xCallback, is a pointer to the collating function.
+** ^The fifth argument, xCompare, is a pointer to the collating function.
 ** ^Multiple collating functions can be registered using the same name but
 ** with different eTextRep parameters and SQLite will use whichever
 ** function requires the least amount of data transformation.
-** ^If the xCallback argument is NULL then the collating function is
+** ^If the xCompare argument is NULL then the collating function is
 ** deleted.  ^When all collating functions having the same name are deleted,
 ** that collation is no longer usable.
 **
 ** ^The collating function callback is invoked with a copy of the pArg 
 ** application data pointer and with two strings in the encoding specified
-** by the eTextRep argument.  The collating function must return an
-** integer that is negative, zero, or positive
+** by the eTextRep argument.  The two integer parameters to the collating
+** function callback are the length of the two strings, in bytes. The collating
+** function must return an integer that is negative, zero, or positive
 ** if the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second,
 ** respectively.  A collating function must always return the same answer
 ** given the same inputs.  If two or more collating functions are registered
@@ -6579,7 +6777,7 @@
 ** </ol>
 **
 ** If a collating function fails any of the above constraints and that
-** collating function is  registered and used, then the behavior of SQLite
+** collating function is registered and used, then the behavior of SQLite
 ** is undefined.
 **
 ** ^The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
@@ -6906,16 +7104,31 @@
 ** CAPI3REF: Return The Filename For A Database Connection
 ** METHOD: sqlite3
 **
-** ^The sqlite3_db_filename(D,N) interface returns a pointer to a filename
-** associated with database N of connection D.  ^The main database file
-** has the name "main".  If there is no attached database N on the database
+** ^The sqlite3_db_filename(D,N) interface returns a pointer to the filename
+** associated with database N of connection D.
+** ^If there is no attached database N on the database
 ** connection D, or if database N is a temporary or in-memory database, then
 ** this function will return either a NULL pointer or an empty string.
 **
+** ^The string value returned by this routine is owned and managed by
+** the database connection.  ^The value will be valid until the database N
+** is [DETACH]-ed or until the database connection closes.
+**
 ** ^The filename returned by this function is the output of the
 ** xFullPathname method of the [VFS].  ^In other words, the filename
 ** will be an absolute pathname, even if the filename used
 ** to open the database originally was a URI or relative pathname.
+**
+** If the filename pointer returned by this routine is not NULL, then it
+** can be used as the filename input parameter to these routines:
+** <ul>
+** <li> [sqlite3_uri_parameter()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_uri_boolean()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_uri_int64()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_filename_database()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_filename_journal()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_filename_wal()]
+** </ul>
 */
 SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_db_filename(sqlite3 *db, const char *zDbName);
 
@@ -7065,15 +7278,19 @@
 **
 ** ^(The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
 ** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
-** Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
+** Existing database connections continue to use the sharing mode
 ** that was in effect at the time they were opened.)^
 **
 ** ^(This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was enabled or disabled
 ** successfully.  An [error code] is returned otherwise.)^
 **
-** ^Shared cache is disabled by default. But this might change in
-** future releases of SQLite.  Applications that care about shared
-** cache setting should set it explicitly.
+** ^Shared cache is disabled by default. It is recommended that it stay
+** that way.  In other words, do not use this routine.  This interface
+** continues to be provided for historical compatibility, but its use is
+** discouraged.  Any use of shared cache is discouraged.  If shared cache
+** must be used, it is recommended that shared cache only be enabled for
+** individual database connections using the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface
+** with the [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE] flag.
 **
 ** Note: This method is disabled on MacOS X 10.7 and iOS version 5.0
 ** and will always return SQLITE_MISUSE. On those systems, 
@@ -7120,6 +7337,9 @@
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Impose A Limit On Heap Size
 **
+** These interfaces impose limits on the amount of heap memory that will be
+** by all database connections within a single process.
+**
 ** ^The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() interface sets and/or queries the
 ** soft limit on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated by SQLite.
 ** ^SQLite strives to keep heap memory utilization below the soft heap
@@ -7130,20 +7350,41 @@
 ** an [SQLITE_NOMEM] error.  In other words, the soft heap limit 
 ** is advisory only.
 **
-** ^The return value from sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() is the size of
-** the soft heap limit prior to the call, or negative in the case of an
+** ^The sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64(N) interface sets a hard upper bound of
+** N bytes on the amount of memory that will be allocated.  ^The
+** sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64(N) interface is similar to
+** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(N) except that memory allocations will fail
+** when the hard heap limit is reached.
+**
+** ^The return value from both sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() and
+** sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64() is the size of
+** the heap limit prior to the call, or negative in the case of an
 ** error.  ^If the argument N is negative
-** then no change is made to the soft heap limit.  Hence, the current
-** size of the soft heap limit can be determined by invoking
-** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() with a negative argument.
-**
-** ^If the argument N is zero then the soft heap limit is disabled.
-**
-** ^(The soft heap limit is not enforced in the current implementation
+** then no change is made to the heap limit.  Hence, the current
+** size of heap limits can be determined by invoking
+** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(-1) or sqlite3_hard_heap_limit(-1).
+**
+** ^Setting the heap limits to zero disables the heap limiter mechanism.
+**
+** ^The soft heap limit may not be greater than the hard heap limit.
+** ^If the hard heap limit is enabled and if sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(N)
+** is invoked with a value of N that is greater than the hard heap limit,
+** the the soft heap limit is set to the value of the hard heap limit.
+** ^The soft heap limit is automatically enabled whenever the hard heap
+** limit is enabled. ^When sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64(N) is invoked and
+** the soft heap limit is outside the range of 1..N, then the soft heap
+** limit is set to N.  ^Invoking sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(0) when the
+** hard heap limit is enabled makes the soft heap limit equal to the
+** hard heap limit.
+**
+** The memory allocation limits can also be adjusted using
+** [PRAGMA soft_heap_limit] and [PRAGMA hard_heap_limit].
+**
+** ^(The heap limits are not enforced in the current implementation
 ** if one or more of following conditions are true:
 **
 ** <ul>
-** <li> The soft heap limit is set to zero.
+** <li> The limit value is set to zero.
 ** <li> Memory accounting is disabled using a combination of the
 **      [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS],...) start-time option and
 **      the [SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS] compile-time option.
@@ -7154,21 +7395,11 @@
 **      from the heap.
 ** </ul>)^
 **
-** Beginning with SQLite [version 3.7.3] ([dateof:3.7.3]), 
-** the soft heap limit is enforced
-** regardless of whether or not the [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT]
-** compile-time option is invoked.  With [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT],
-** the soft heap limit is enforced on every memory allocation.  Without
-** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT], the soft heap limit is only enforced
-** when memory is allocated by the page cache.  Testing suggests that because
-** the page cache is the predominate memory user in SQLite, most
-** applications will achieve adequate soft heap limit enforcement without
-** the use of [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT].
-**
-** The circumstances under which SQLite will enforce the soft heap limit may
+** The circumstances under which SQLite will enforce the heap limits may
 ** changes in future releases of SQLite.
 */
 SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 N);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 N);
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Soft Heap Limit Interface
@@ -7192,7 +7423,7 @@
 ** interface returns SQLITE_OK and fills in the non-NULL pointers in
 ** the final five arguments with appropriate values if the specified
 ** column exists.  ^The sqlite3_table_column_metadata() interface returns
-** SQLITE_ERROR and if the specified column does not exist.
+** SQLITE_ERROR if the specified column does not exist.
 ** ^If the column-name parameter to sqlite3_table_column_metadata() is a
 ** NULL pointer, then this routine simply checks for the existence of the
 ** table and returns SQLITE_OK if the table exists and SQLITE_ERROR if it
@@ -7334,7 +7565,7 @@
 ** to enable or disable only the C-API.)^
 **
 ** <b>Security warning:</b> It is recommended that extension loading
-** be disabled using the [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION] method
+** be enabled using the [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION] method
 ** rather than this interface, so the [load_extension()] SQL function
 ** remains disabled. This will prevent SQL injections from giving attackers
 ** access to extension loading capabilities.
@@ -7421,7 +7652,7 @@
 ** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_module {virtual table module}
 **
 ** This structure, sometimes called a "virtual table module", 
-** defines the implementation of a [virtual tables].  
+** defines the implementation of a [virtual table].  
 ** This structure consists mostly of methods for the module.
 **
 ** ^A virtual table module is created by filling in a persistent
@@ -7518,7 +7749,13 @@
 ** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
 ** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv.  ^(If aConstraintUsage[].omit
 ** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
-** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.)^
+** virtual table and might not be checked again by the byte code.)^ ^(The
+** aConstraintUsage[].omit flag is an optimization hint. When the omit flag
+** is left in its default setting of false, the constraint will always be
+** checked separately in byte code.  If the omit flag is change to true, then
+** the constraint may or may not be checked in byte code.  In other words,
+** when the omit flag is true there is no guarantee that the constraint will
+** not be checked again using byte code.)^
 **
 ** ^The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into the
 ** [xFilter] method.
@@ -7558,7 +7795,7 @@
 ** If a virtual table extension is
 ** used with an SQLite version earlier than 3.8.2, the results of attempting 
 ** to read or write the estimatedRows field are undefined (but are likely 
-** to included crashing the application). The estimatedRows field should
+** to include crashing the application). The estimatedRows field should
 ** therefore only be used if [sqlite3_libversion_number()] returns a
 ** value greater than or equal to 3008002. Similarly, the idxFlags field
 ** was added for [version 3.9.0] ([dateof:3.9.0]). 
@@ -7610,7 +7847,7 @@
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Constraint Operator Codes
 **
-** These macros defined the allowed values for the
+** These macros define the allowed values for the
 ** [sqlite3_index_info].aConstraint[].op field.  Each value represents
 ** an operator that is part of a constraint term in the wHERE clause of
 ** a query that uses a [virtual table].
@@ -7656,6 +7893,12 @@
 ** ^The sqlite3_create_module()
 ** interface is equivalent to sqlite3_create_module_v2() with a NULL
 ** destructor.
+**
+** ^If the third parameter (the pointer to the sqlite3_module object) is
+** NULL then no new module is create and any existing modules with the
+** same name are dropped.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_drop_modules()]
 */
 SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module(
   sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
@@ -7672,6 +7915,23 @@
 );
 
 /*
+** CAPI3REF: Remove Unnecessary Virtual Table Implementations
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_drop_modules(D,L) interface removes all virtual
+** table modules from database connection D except those named on list L.
+** The L parameter must be either NULL or a pointer to an array of pointers
+** to strings where the array is terminated by a single NULL pointer.
+** ^If the L parameter is NULL, then all virtual table modules are removed.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_create_module()]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_drop_modules(
+  sqlite3 *db,                /* Remove modules from this connection */
+  const char **azKeep         /* Except, do not remove the ones named here */
+);
+
+/*
 ** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Instance Object
 ** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab
 **
@@ -8197,7 +8457,7 @@
 ** The only difference is that the public sqlite3_XXX functions enumerated
 ** above silently ignore any invocations that pass a NULL pointer instead
 ** of a valid mutex handle. The implementations of the methods defined
-** by this structure are not required to handle this case, the results
+** by this structure are not required to handle this case. The results
 ** of passing a NULL pointer instead of a valid mutex handle are undefined
 ** (i.e. it is acceptable to provide an implementation that segfaults if
 ** it is passed a NULL pointer).
@@ -8379,7 +8639,7 @@
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FIRST                    5
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SAVE                5
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESTORE             6
-#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESET               7
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESET               7  /* NOT USED */
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BITVEC_TEST              8
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_INSTALL            9
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BENIGN_MALLOC_HOOKS     10
@@ -8402,7 +8662,9 @@
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER                25
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PARSER_COVERAGE         26
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_RESULT_INTREAL          27
-#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LAST                    27  /* Largest TESTCTRL */
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SEED               28
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_EXTRA_SCHEMA_CHECKS     29
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LAST                    29  /* Largest TESTCTRL */
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: SQL Keyword Checking
@@ -8668,7 +8930,7 @@
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE</dt>
 ** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
-** handed to [pagecache memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
+** handed to the [pagecache memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
 ** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
 ** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
 **
@@ -8744,7 +9006,7 @@
 ** checked out.</dd>)^
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT</dt>
-** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that were 
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of malloc attempts that were 
 ** satisfied using lookaside memory. Only the high-water value is meaningful;
 ** the current value is always zero.)^
 **
@@ -8826,7 +9088,7 @@
 ** cache overflowing. Transactions are more efficient if they are written
 ** to disk all at once. When pages spill mid-transaction, that introduces
 ** additional overhead. This parameter can be used help identify
-** inefficiencies that can be resolve by increasing the cache size.
+** inefficiencies that can be resolved by increasing the cache size.
 ** </dd>
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_DEFERRED_FKS]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_DEFERRED_FKS</dt>
@@ -8915,7 +9177,7 @@
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_REPREPARE]] <dt>SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_REPREPARE</dt>
 ** <dd>^This is the number of times that the prepare statement has been
-** automatically regenerated due to schema changes or change to 
+** automatically regenerated due to schema changes or changes to 
 ** [bound parameters] that might affect the query plan.
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_RUN]] <dt>SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_RUN</dt>
@@ -9086,7 +9348,7 @@
 **
 ** ^(SQLite will normally invoke xFetch() with a createFlag of 0 or 1.  SQLite
 ** will only use a createFlag of 2 after a prior call with a createFlag of 1
-** failed.)^  In between the to xFetch() calls, SQLite may
+** failed.)^  In between the xFetch() calls, SQLite may
 ** attempt to unpin one or more cache pages by spilling the content of
 ** pinned pages to disk and synching the operating system disk cache.
 **
@@ -9404,7 +9666,7 @@
 ** the first argument to register for a callback that will be invoked
 ** when the blocking connections current transaction is concluded. ^The
 ** callback is invoked from within the [sqlite3_step] or [sqlite3_close]
-** call that concludes the blocking connections transaction.
+** call that concludes the blocking connection's transaction.
 **
 ** ^(If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is called in a multi-threaded application,
 ** there is a chance that the blocking connection will have already
@@ -9442,7 +9704,7 @@
 ** an unlock-notify callback is a pointer to an array of void* pointers,
 ** and the second is the number of entries in the array.
 **
-** When a blocking connections transaction is concluded, there may be
+** When a blocking connection's transaction is concluded, there may be
 ** more than one blocked connection that has registered for an unlock-notify
 ** callback. ^If two or more such blocked connections have specified the
 ** same callback function, then instead of invoking the callback function
@@ -9790,14 +10052,20 @@
 ** If this interface is invoked outside the context of an xConnect or
 ** xCreate virtual table method then the behavior is undefined.
 **
-** At present, there is only one option that may be configured using
-** this function. (See [SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT].)  Further options
-** may be added in the future.
+** In the call sqlite3_vtab_config(D,C,...) the D parameter is the
+** [database connection] in which the virtual table is being created and
+** which is passed in as the first argument to the [xConnect] or [xCreate]
+** method that is invoking sqlite3_vtab_config().  The C parameter is one
+** of the [virtual table configuration options].  The presence and meaning
+** of parameters after C depend on which [virtual table configuration option]
+** is used.
 */
 SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vtab_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Configuration Options
+** KEYWORDS: {virtual table configuration options} 
+** KEYWORDS: {virtual table configuration option}
 **
 ** These macros define the various options to the
 ** [sqlite3_vtab_config()] interface that [virtual table] implementations
@@ -9805,7 +10073,7 @@
 **
 ** <dl>
 ** [[SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT]]
-** <dt>SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT
+** <dt>SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT</dt>
 ** <dd>Calls of the form
 ** [sqlite3_vtab_config](db,SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT,X) are supported,
 ** where X is an integer.  If X is zero, then the [virtual table] whose
@@ -9834,9 +10102,31 @@
 ** return SQLITE_OK. Or, if this is not possible, it may return
 ** SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, in which case SQLite falls back to OR ABORT 
 ** constraint handling.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_VTAB_DIRECTONLY]]<dt>SQLITE_VTAB_DIRECTONLY</dt>
+** <dd>Calls of the form
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config](db,SQLITE_VTAB_DIRECTONLY) from within the
+** the [xConnect] or [xCreate] methods of a [virtual table] implmentation
+** prohibits that virtual table from being used from within triggers and
+** views.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS]]<dt>SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS</dt>
+** <dd>Calls of the form
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config](db,SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS) from within the
+** the [xConnect] or [xCreate] methods of a [virtual table] implmentation
+** identify that virtual table as being safe to use from within triggers
+** and views.  Conceptually, the SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS tag means that the
+** virtual table can do no serious harm even if it is controlled by a
+** malicious hacker.  Developers should avoid setting the SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS
+** flag unless absolutely necessary.
+** </dd>
 ** </dl>
 */
 #define SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT 1
+#define SQLITE_VTAB_INNOCUOUS          2
+#define SQLITE_VTAB_DIRECTONLY         3
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Determine The Virtual Table Conflict Policy
@@ -9916,15 +10206,15 @@
 **
 ** <dl>
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NLOOP]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NLOOP</dt>
-** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the T parameter will be
+** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the V parameter will be
 ** set to the total number of times that the X-th loop has run.</dd>
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NVISIT]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NVISIT</dt>
-** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the V parameter will be set
 ** to the total number of rows examined by all iterations of the X-th loop.</dd>
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EST]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EST</dt>
-** <dd>^The "double" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set to the
+** <dd>^The "double" variable pointed to by the V parameter will be set to the
 ** query planner's estimate for the average number of rows output from each
 ** iteration of the X-th loop.  If the query planner's estimates was accurate,
 ** then this value will approximate the quotient NVISIT/NLOOP and the
@@ -9932,17 +10222,17 @@
 ** be the NLOOP value for the current loop.
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NAME]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NAME</dt>
-** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the V parameter will be set
 ** to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the name of the index or table
 ** used for the X-th loop.
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EXPLAIN]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EXPLAIN</dt>
-** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the V parameter will be set
 ** to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the [EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN]
 ** description for the X-th loop.
 **
 ** [[SQLITE_SCANSTAT_SELECTID]] <dt>SQLITE_SCANSTAT_SELECT</dt>
-** <dd>^The "int" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set to the
+** <dd>^The "int" variable pointed to by the V parameter will be set to the
 ** "select-id" for the X-th loop.  The select-id identifies which query or
 ** subquery the loop is part of.  The main query has a select-id of zero.
 ** The select-id is the same value as is output in the first column
@@ -10797,7 +11087,7 @@
 ** The second argument (xFilter) is the "filter callback". For changes to rows 
 ** in tables that are not attached to the Session object, the filter is called
 ** to determine whether changes to the table's rows should be tracked or not. 
-** If xFilter returns 0, changes is not tracked. Note that once a table is 
+** If xFilter returns 0, changes are not tracked. Note that once a table is 
 ** attached, xFilter will not be called again.
 */
 SQLITE_API void sqlite3session_table_filter(
@@ -10971,7 +11261,7 @@
 ** It an error if database zFrom does not exist or does not contain the
 ** required compatible table.
 **
-** If the operation successful, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an SQLite
+** If the operation is successful, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an SQLite
 ** error code. In this case, if argument pzErrMsg is not NULL, *pzErrMsg
 ** may be set to point to a buffer containing an English language error 
 ** message. It is the responsibility of the caller to free this buffer using
@@ -11108,7 +11398,7 @@
 ** CAPI3REF: Advance A Changeset Iterator
 ** METHOD: sqlite3_changeset_iter
 **
-** This function may only be used with iterators created by function
+** This function may only be used with iterators created by the function
 ** [sqlite3changeset_start()]. If it is called on an iterator passed to
 ** a conflict-handler callback by [sqlite3changeset_apply()], SQLITE_MISUSE
 ** is returned and the call has no effect.
@@ -11524,8 +11814,8 @@
 ** case, this function fails with SQLITE_SCHEMA. If the input changeset
 ** appears to be corrupt and the corruption is detected, SQLITE_CORRUPT is
 ** returned. Or, if an out-of-memory condition occurs during processing, this
-** function returns SQLITE_NOMEM. In all cases, if an error occurs the
-** final contents of the changegroup is undefined.
+** function returns SQLITE_NOMEM. In all cases, if an error occurs the state
+** of the final contents of the changegroup is undefined.
 **
 ** If no error occurs, SQLITE_OK is returned.
 */
@@ -11700,7 +11990,7 @@
 **
 ** It is safe to execute SQL statements, including those that write to the
 ** table that the callback related to, from within the xConflict callback.
-** This can be used to further customize the applications conflict
+** This can be used to further customize the application's conflict
 ** resolution strategy.
 **
 ** All changes made by these functions are enclosed in a savepoint transaction.
@@ -12010,7 +12300,7 @@
 **
 ** Argument pIn must point to a buffer containing a changeset nIn bytes
 ** in size. This function allocates and populates a buffer with a copy
-** of the changeset rebased rebased according to the configuration of the
+** of the changeset rebased according to the configuration of the
 ** rebaser object passed as the first argument. If successful, (*ppOut)
 ** is set to point to the new buffer containing the rebased changeset and 
 ** (*pnOut) to its size in bytes and SQLITE_OK returned. It is the
@@ -12418,7 +12708,7 @@
 **
 ** xSetAuxdata(pFts5, pAux, xDelete)
 **
-**   Save the pointer passed as the second argument as the extension functions 
+**   Save the pointer passed as the second argument as the extension function's 
 **   "auxiliary data". The pointer may then be retrieved by the current or any
 **   future invocation of the same fts5 extension function made as part of
 **   the same MATCH query using the xGetAuxdata() API.
@@ -12660,8 +12950,8 @@
 **
 **   There are several ways to approach this in FTS5:
 **
-**   <ol><li> By mapping all synonyms to a single token. In this case, the 
-**            In the above example, this means that the tokenizer returns the
+**   <ol><li> By mapping all synonyms to a single token. In this case, using
+**            the above example, this means that the tokenizer returns the
 **            same token for inputs "first" and "1st". Say that token is in
 **            fact "first", so that when the user inserts the document "I won
 **            1st place" entries are added to the index for tokens "i", "won",
@@ -13099,15 +13389,15 @@
 ** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
 ** compiler.
 */
-#if defined(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)  /* This case should work for GCC */
+#if defined(HAVE_STDINT_H)   /* Use this case if we have ANSI headers */
+# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(intptr_t)(X))
+# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(intptr_t)(X))
+#elif defined(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)  /* This case should work for GCC */
 # define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
 # define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
 #elif !defined(__GNUC__)       /* Works for compilers other than LLVM */
 # define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)&((char*)0)[X])
 # define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(((char*)X)-(char*)0))
-#elif defined(HAVE_STDINT_H)   /* Use this case if we have ANSI headers */
-# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(intptr_t)(X))
-# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(intptr_t)(X))
 #else                          /* Generates a warning - but it always works */
 # define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(X))
 # define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(X))
@@ -13334,6 +13624,26 @@
 #endif
 
 /*
+** The harmless(X) macro indicates that expression X is usually false
+** but can be true without causing any problems, but we don't know of
+** any way to cause X to be true.
+**
+** In debugging and testing builds, this macro will abort if X is ever
+** true.  In this way, developers are alerted to a possible test case
+** that causes X to be true.  If a harmless macro ever fails, that is
+** an opportunity to change the macro into a testcase() and add a new
+** test case to the test suite.
+**
+** For normal production builds, harmless(X) is a no-op, since it does
+** not matter whether expression X is true or false.
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+# define harmless(X)  assert(!(X));
+#else
+# define harmless(X)
+#endif
+
+/*
 ** Some conditionals are optimizations only.  In other words, if the
 ** conditionals are replaced with a constant 1 (true) or 0 (false) then
 ** the correct answer is still obtained, though perhaps not as quickly.
@@ -13597,100 +13907,105 @@
 #define TK_VIEW                            79
 #define TK_VIRTUAL                         80
 #define TK_WITH                            81
-#define TK_CURRENT                         82
-#define TK_FOLLOWING                       83
-#define TK_PARTITION                       84
-#define TK_PRECEDING                       85
-#define TK_RANGE                           86
-#define TK_UNBOUNDED                       87
-#define TK_EXCLUDE                         88
-#define TK_GROUPS                          89
-#define TK_OTHERS                          90
-#define TK_TIES                            91
-#define TK_REINDEX                         92
-#define TK_RENAME                          93
-#define TK_CTIME_KW                        94
-#define TK_ANY                             95
-#define TK_BITAND                          96
-#define TK_BITOR                           97
-#define TK_LSHIFT                          98
-#define TK_RSHIFT                          99
-#define TK_PLUS                           100
-#define TK_MINUS                          101
-#define TK_STAR                           102
-#define TK_SLASH                          103
-#define TK_REM                            104
-#define TK_CONCAT                         105
-#define TK_COLLATE                        106
-#define TK_BITNOT                         107
-#define TK_ON                             108
-#define TK_INDEXED                        109
-#define TK_STRING                         110
-#define TK_JOIN_KW                        111
-#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     112
-#define TK_DEFAULT                        113
-#define TK_NULL                           114
-#define TK_PRIMARY                        115
-#define TK_UNIQUE                         116
-#define TK_CHECK                          117
-#define TK_REFERENCES                     118
-#define TK_AUTOINCR                       119
-#define TK_INSERT                         120
-#define TK_DELETE                         121
-#define TK_UPDATE                         122
-#define TK_SET                            123
-#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     124
-#define TK_FOREIGN                        125
-#define TK_DROP                           126
-#define TK_UNION                          127
-#define TK_ALL                            128
-#define TK_EXCEPT                         129
-#define TK_INTERSECT                      130
-#define TK_SELECT                         131
-#define TK_VALUES                         132
-#define TK_DISTINCT                       133
-#define TK_DOT                            134
-#define TK_FROM                           135
-#define TK_JOIN                           136
-#define TK_USING                          137
-#define TK_ORDER                          138
-#define TK_GROUP                          139
-#define TK_HAVING                         140
-#define TK_LIMIT                          141
-#define TK_WHERE                          142
-#define TK_INTO                           143
-#define TK_NOTHING                        144
-#define TK_FLOAT                          145
-#define TK_BLOB                           146
-#define TK_INTEGER                        147
-#define TK_VARIABLE                       148
-#define TK_CASE                           149
-#define TK_WHEN                           150
-#define TK_THEN                           151
-#define TK_ELSE                           152
-#define TK_INDEX                          153
-#define TK_ALTER                          154
-#define TK_ADD                            155
-#define TK_WINDOW                         156
-#define TK_OVER                           157
-#define TK_FILTER                         158
-#define TK_TRUEFALSE                      159
-#define TK_ISNOT                          160
-#define TK_FUNCTION                       161
-#define TK_COLUMN                         162
-#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   163
-#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     164
-#define TK_UMINUS                         165
-#define TK_UPLUS                          166
-#define TK_TRUTH                          167
-#define TK_REGISTER                       168
-#define TK_VECTOR                         169
-#define TK_SELECT_COLUMN                  170
-#define TK_IF_NULL_ROW                    171
-#define TK_ASTERISK                       172
-#define TK_SPAN                           173
-#define TK_SPACE                          174
-#define TK_ILLEGAL                        175
+#define TK_NULLS                           82
+#define TK_FIRST                           83
+#define TK_LAST                            84
+#define TK_CURRENT                         85
+#define TK_FOLLOWING                       86
+#define TK_PARTITION                       87
+#define TK_PRECEDING                       88
+#define TK_RANGE                           89
+#define TK_UNBOUNDED                       90
+#define TK_EXCLUDE                         91
+#define TK_GROUPS                          92
+#define TK_OTHERS                          93
+#define TK_TIES                            94
+#define TK_GENERATED                       95
+#define TK_ALWAYS                          96
+#define TK_REINDEX                         97
+#define TK_RENAME                          98
+#define TK_CTIME_KW                        99
+#define TK_ANY                            100
+#define TK_BITAND                         101
+#define TK_BITOR                          102
+#define TK_LSHIFT                         103
+#define TK_RSHIFT                         104
+#define TK_PLUS                           105
+#define TK_MINUS                          106
+#define TK_STAR                           107
+#define TK_SLASH                          108
+#define TK_REM                            109
+#define TK_CONCAT                         110
+#define TK_COLLATE                        111
+#define TK_BITNOT                         112
+#define TK_ON                             113
+#define TK_INDEXED                        114
+#define TK_STRING                         115
+#define TK_JOIN_KW                        116
+#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     117
+#define TK_DEFAULT                        118
+#define TK_NULL                           119
+#define TK_PRIMARY                        120
+#define TK_UNIQUE                         121
+#define TK_CHECK                          122
+#define TK_REFERENCES                     123
+#define TK_AUTOINCR                       124
+#define TK_INSERT                         125
+#define TK_DELETE                         126
+#define TK_UPDATE                         127
+#define TK_SET                            128
+#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     129
+#define TK_FOREIGN                        130
+#define TK_DROP                           131
+#define TK_UNION                          132
+#define TK_ALL                            133
+#define TK_EXCEPT                         134
+#define TK_INTERSECT                      135
+#define TK_SELECT                         136
+#define TK_VALUES                         137
+#define TK_DISTINCT                       138
+#define TK_DOT                            139
+#define TK_FROM                           140
+#define TK_JOIN                           141
+#define TK_USING                          142
+#define TK_ORDER                          143
+#define TK_GROUP                          144
+#define TK_HAVING                         145
+#define TK_LIMIT                          146
+#define TK_WHERE                          147
+#define TK_INTO                           148
+#define TK_NOTHING                        149
+#define TK_FLOAT                          150
+#define TK_BLOB                           151
+#define TK_INTEGER                        152
+#define TK_VARIABLE                       153
+#define TK_CASE                           154
+#define TK_WHEN                           155
+#define TK_THEN                           156
+#define TK_ELSE                           157
+#define TK_INDEX                          158
+#define TK_ALTER                          159
+#define TK_ADD                            160
+#define TK_WINDOW                         161
+#define TK_OVER                           162
+#define TK_FILTER                         163
+#define TK_COLUMN                         164
+#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   165
+#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     166
+#define TK_TRUEFALSE                      167
+#define TK_ISNOT                          168
+#define TK_FUNCTION                       169
+#define TK_UMINUS                         170
+#define TK_UPLUS                          171
+#define TK_TRUTH                          172
+#define TK_REGISTER                       173
+#define TK_VECTOR                         174
+#define TK_SELECT_COLUMN                  175
+#define TK_IF_NULL_ROW                    176
+#define TK_ASTERISK                       177
+#define TK_SPAN                           178
+#define TK_SPACE                          179
+#define TK_ILLEGAL                        180
 
 /************** End of parse.h ***********************************************/
 /************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
@@ -14102,20 +14417,6 @@
 #endif
 
 /*
-** Only one of SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3 or SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 can be defined.
-** Priority is given to SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4.  If either are defined, also
-** define SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
-*/
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
-# undef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
-# define SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 1
-#elif SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
-# define SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 1
-#elif SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
-# undef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
-#endif
-
-/*
 ** SELECTTRACE_ENABLED will be either 1 or 0 depending on whether or not
 ** the Select query generator tracing logic is turned on.
 */
@@ -14302,6 +14603,7 @@
 ** A bit in a Bitmask
 */
 #define MASKBIT(n)   (((Bitmask)1)<<(n))
+#define MASKBIT64(n) (((u64)1)<<(n))
 #define MASKBIT32(n) (((unsigned int)1)<<(n))
 #define ALLBITS      ((Bitmask)-1)
 
@@ -14628,6 +14930,8 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeEof(BtCursor*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePrevious(BtCursor*, int flags);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3BtreeIntegerKey(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorPin(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorUnpin(BtCursor*);
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_OFFSET_SQL_FUNC
 SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3BtreeOffset(BtCursor*);
 #endif
@@ -14636,7 +14940,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3BtreePayloadSize(BtCursor*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3BtreeMaxRecordSize(BtCursor*);
 
-SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(sqlite3*,Btree*,int*aRoot,int nRoot,int,int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3BtreeRowCountEst(BtCursor*);
 
@@ -14657,7 +14961,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValidNN(BtCursor*);
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BTREECOUNT
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCount(BtCursor *, i64 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCount(sqlite3*, BtCursor*, i64*);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_TEST
@@ -14914,30 +15218,30 @@
 #define OP_SeekLE         23 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
 #define OP_SeekGE         24 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
 #define OP_SeekGT         25 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_IfNoHope       26 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_NoConflict     27 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_NotFound       28 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_Found          29 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_SeekRowid      30 /* jump, synopsis: intkey=r[P3]               */
-#define OP_NotExists      31 /* jump, synopsis: intkey=r[P3]               */
-#define OP_Last           32 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_IfSmaller      33 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_SorterSort     34 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_Sort           35 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_Rewind         36 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_IdxLE          37 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_IdxGT          38 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_IdxLT          39 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_IdxGE          40 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
-#define OP_RowSetRead     41 /* jump, synopsis: r[P3]=rowset(P1)           */
-#define OP_RowSetTest     42 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P3] in rowset(P1) goto P2 */
+#define OP_IfNotOpen      26 /* jump, synopsis: if( !csr[P1] ) goto P2     */
+#define OP_IfNoHope       27 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_NoConflict     28 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_NotFound       29 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_Found          30 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_SeekRowid      31 /* jump, synopsis: intkey=r[P3]               */
+#define OP_NotExists      32 /* jump, synopsis: intkey=r[P3]               */
+#define OP_Last           33 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_IfSmaller      34 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_SorterSort     35 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_Sort           36 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_Rewind         37 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_IdxLE          38 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_IdxGT          39 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_IdxLT          40 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_IdxGE          41 /* jump, synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]               */
+#define OP_RowSetRead     42 /* jump, synopsis: r[P3]=rowset(P1)           */
 #define OP_Or             43 /* same as TK_OR, synopsis: r[P3]=(r[P1] || r[P2]) */
 #define OP_And            44 /* same as TK_AND, synopsis: r[P3]=(r[P1] && r[P2]) */
-#define OP_Program        45 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_FkIfZero       46 /* jump, synopsis: if fkctr[P1]==0 goto P2    */
-#define OP_IfPos          47 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P1]>0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2 */
-#define OP_IfNotZero      48 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P1]!=0 then r[P1]--, goto P2 */
-#define OP_DecrJumpZero   49 /* jump, synopsis: if (--r[P1])==0 goto P2    */
+#define OP_RowSetTest     45 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P3] in rowset(P1) goto P2 */
+#define OP_Program        46 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_FkIfZero       47 /* jump, synopsis: if fkctr[P1]==0 goto P2    */
+#define OP_IfPos          48 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P1]>0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2 */
+#define OP_IfNotZero      49 /* jump, synopsis: if r[P1]!=0 then r[P1]--, goto P2 */
 #define OP_IsNull         50 /* jump, same as TK_ISNULL, synopsis: if r[P1]==NULL goto P2 */
 #define OP_NotNull        51 /* jump, same as TK_NOTNULL, synopsis: if r[P1]!=NULL goto P2 */
 #define OP_Ne             52 /* jump, same as TK_NE, synopsis: IF r[P3]!=r[P1] */
@@ -14947,83 +15251,83 @@
 #define OP_Lt             56 /* jump, same as TK_LT, synopsis: IF r[P3]<r[P1] */
 #define OP_Ge             57 /* jump, same as TK_GE, synopsis: IF r[P3]>=r[P1] */
 #define OP_ElseNotEq      58 /* jump, same as TK_ESCAPE                    */
-#define OP_IncrVacuum     59 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_VNext          60 /* jump                                       */
-#define OP_Init           61 /* jump, synopsis: Start at P2                */
-#define OP_PureFunc0      62
-#define OP_Function0      63 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
-#define OP_PureFunc       64
-#define OP_Function       65 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
-#define OP_Return         66
-#define OP_EndCoroutine   67
-#define OP_HaltIfNull     68 /* synopsis: if r[P3]=null halt               */
-#define OP_Halt           69
-#define OP_Integer        70 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P1                         */
-#define OP_Int64          71 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4                         */
-#define OP_String         72 /* synopsis: r[P2]='P4' (len=P1)              */
-#define OP_Null           73 /* synopsis: r[P2..P3]=NULL                   */
-#define OP_SoftNull       74 /* synopsis: r[P1]=NULL                       */
-#define OP_Blob           75 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4 (len=P1)                */
-#define OP_Variable       76 /* synopsis: r[P2]=parameter(P1,P4)           */
-#define OP_Move           77 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]                */
-#define OP_Copy           78 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3+1]=r[P1@P3+1]            */
-#define OP_SCopy          79 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
-#define OP_IntCopy        80 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
-#define OP_ResultRow      81 /* synopsis: output=r[P1@P2]                  */
-#define OP_CollSeq        82
-#define OP_AddImm         83 /* synopsis: r[P1]=r[P1]+P2                   */
-#define OP_RealAffinity   84
-#define OP_Cast           85 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1])                  */
-#define OP_Permutation    86
-#define OP_Compare        87 /* synopsis: r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]            */
-#define OP_IsTrue         88 /* synopsis: r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4 */
-#define OP_Offset         89 /* synopsis: r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)        */
-#define OP_Column         90 /* synopsis: r[P3]=PX                         */
-#define OP_Affinity       91 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1@P2])               */
-#define OP_MakeRecord     92 /* synopsis: r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])            */
-#define OP_Count          93 /* synopsis: r[P2]=count()                    */
-#define OP_ReadCookie     94
-#define OP_SetCookie      95
-#define OP_BitAnd         96 /* same as TK_BITAND, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2] */
-#define OP_BitOr          97 /* same as TK_BITOR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2] */
-#define OP_ShiftLeft      98 /* same as TK_LSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1] */
-#define OP_ShiftRight     99 /* same as TK_RSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1] */
-#define OP_Add           100 /* same as TK_PLUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2] */
-#define OP_Subtract      101 /* same as TK_MINUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1] */
-#define OP_Multiply      102 /* same as TK_STAR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2] */
-#define OP_Divide        103 /* same as TK_SLASH, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1] */
-#define OP_Remainder     104 /* same as TK_REM, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1] */
-#define OP_Concat        105 /* same as TK_CONCAT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1] */
-#define OP_ReopenIdx     106 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
-#define OP_BitNot        107 /* same as TK_BITNOT, synopsis: r[P2]= ~r[P1] */
-#define OP_OpenRead      108 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
-#define OP_OpenWrite     109 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
-#define OP_String8       110 /* same as TK_STRING, synopsis: r[P2]='P4'    */
-#define OP_OpenDup       111
-#define OP_OpenAutoindex 112 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2                       */
-#define OP_OpenEphemeral 113 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2                       */
-#define OP_SorterOpen    114
-#define OP_SequenceTest  115 /* synopsis: if( cursor[P1].ctr++ ) pc = P2   */
-#define OP_OpenPseudo    116 /* synopsis: P3 columns in r[P2]              */
-#define OP_Close         117
-#define OP_ColumnsUsed   118
-#define OP_SeekHit       119 /* synopsis: seekHit=P2                       */
-#define OP_Sequence      120 /* synopsis: r[P2]=cursor[P1].ctr++           */
-#define OP_NewRowid      121 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
-#define OP_Insert        122 /* synopsis: intkey=r[P3] data=r[P2]          */
-#define OP_Delete        123
-#define OP_ResetCount    124
-#define OP_SorterCompare 125 /* synopsis: if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2 */
-#define OP_SorterData    126 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data                       */
-#define OP_RowData       127 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data                       */
-#define OP_Rowid         128 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
-#define OP_NullRow       129
-#define OP_SeekEnd       130
-#define OP_SorterInsert  131 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
-#define OP_IdxInsert     132 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
-#define OP_IdxDelete     133 /* synopsis: key=r[P2@P3]                     */
-#define OP_DeferredSeek  134 /* synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed    */
-#define OP_IdxRowid      135 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
+#define OP_DecrJumpZero   59 /* jump, synopsis: if (--r[P1])==0 goto P2    */
+#define OP_IncrVacuum     60 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_VNext          61 /* jump                                       */
+#define OP_Init           62 /* jump, synopsis: Start at P2                */
+#define OP_PureFunc       63 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
+#define OP_Function       64 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
+#define OP_Return         65
+#define OP_EndCoroutine   66
+#define OP_HaltIfNull     67 /* synopsis: if r[P3]=null halt               */
+#define OP_Halt           68
+#define OP_Integer        69 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P1                         */
+#define OP_Int64          70 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4                         */
+#define OP_String         71 /* synopsis: r[P2]='P4' (len=P1)              */
+#define OP_Null           72 /* synopsis: r[P2..P3]=NULL                   */
+#define OP_SoftNull       73 /* synopsis: r[P1]=NULL                       */
+#define OP_Blob           74 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4 (len=P1)                */
+#define OP_Variable       75 /* synopsis: r[P2]=parameter(P1,P4)           */
+#define OP_Move           76 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]                */
+#define OP_Copy           77 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3+1]=r[P1@P3+1]            */
+#define OP_SCopy          78 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
+#define OP_IntCopy        79 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
+#define OP_ResultRow      80 /* synopsis: output=r[P1@P2]                  */
+#define OP_CollSeq        81
+#define OP_AddImm         82 /* synopsis: r[P1]=r[P1]+P2                   */
+#define OP_RealAffinity   83
+#define OP_Cast           84 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1])                  */
+#define OP_Permutation    85
+#define OP_Compare        86 /* synopsis: r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]            */
+#define OP_IsTrue         87 /* synopsis: r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4 */
+#define OP_Offset         88 /* synopsis: r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)        */
+#define OP_Column         89 /* synopsis: r[P3]=PX                         */
+#define OP_Affinity       90 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1@P2])               */
+#define OP_MakeRecord     91 /* synopsis: r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])            */
+#define OP_Count          92 /* synopsis: r[P2]=count()                    */
+#define OP_ReadCookie     93
+#define OP_SetCookie      94
+#define OP_ReopenIdx      95 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
+#define OP_OpenRead       96 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
+#define OP_OpenWrite      97 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
+#define OP_OpenDup        98
+#define OP_OpenAutoindex  99 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2                       */
+#define OP_OpenEphemeral 100 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2                       */
+#define OP_BitAnd        101 /* same as TK_BITAND, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2] */
+#define OP_BitOr         102 /* same as TK_BITOR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2] */
+#define OP_ShiftLeft     103 /* same as TK_LSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1] */
+#define OP_ShiftRight    104 /* same as TK_RSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1] */
+#define OP_Add           105 /* same as TK_PLUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2] */
+#define OP_Subtract      106 /* same as TK_MINUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1] */
+#define OP_Multiply      107 /* same as TK_STAR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2] */
+#define OP_Divide        108 /* same as TK_SLASH, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1] */
+#define OP_Remainder     109 /* same as TK_REM, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1] */
+#define OP_Concat        110 /* same as TK_CONCAT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1] */
+#define OP_SorterOpen    111
+#define OP_BitNot        112 /* same as TK_BITNOT, synopsis: r[P2]= ~r[P1] */
+#define OP_SequenceTest  113 /* synopsis: if( cursor[P1].ctr++ ) pc = P2   */
+#define OP_OpenPseudo    114 /* synopsis: P3 columns in r[P2]              */
+#define OP_String8       115 /* same as TK_STRING, synopsis: r[P2]='P4'    */
+#define OP_Close         116
+#define OP_ColumnsUsed   117
+#define OP_SeekHit       118 /* synopsis: seekHit=P2                       */
+#define OP_Sequence      119 /* synopsis: r[P2]=cursor[P1].ctr++           */
+#define OP_NewRowid      120 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
+#define OP_Insert        121 /* synopsis: intkey=r[P3] data=r[P2]          */
+#define OP_Delete        122
+#define OP_ResetCount    123
+#define OP_SorterCompare 124 /* synopsis: if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2 */
+#define OP_SorterData    125 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data                       */
+#define OP_RowData       126 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data                       */
+#define OP_Rowid         127 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
+#define OP_NullRow       128
+#define OP_SeekEnd       129
+#define OP_SorterInsert  130 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
+#define OP_IdxInsert     131 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
+#define OP_IdxDelete     132 /* synopsis: key=r[P2@P3]                     */
+#define OP_DeferredSeek  133 /* synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed    */
+#define OP_IdxRowid      134 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
+#define OP_FinishSeek    135
 #define OP_Destroy       136
 #define OP_Clear         137
 #define OP_ResetSorter   138
@@ -15033,12 +15337,12 @@
 #define OP_LoadAnalysis  142
 #define OP_DropTable     143
 #define OP_DropIndex     144
-#define OP_Real          145 /* same as TK_FLOAT, synopsis: r[P2]=P4       */
-#define OP_DropTrigger   146
-#define OP_IntegrityCk   147
-#define OP_RowSetAdd     148 /* synopsis: rowset(P1)=r[P2]                 */
-#define OP_Param         149
-#define OP_FkCounter     150 /* synopsis: fkctr[P1]+=P2                    */
+#define OP_DropTrigger   145
+#define OP_IntegrityCk   146
+#define OP_RowSetAdd     147 /* synopsis: rowset(P1)=r[P2]                 */
+#define OP_Param         148
+#define OP_FkCounter     149 /* synopsis: fkctr[P1]+=P2                    */
+#define OP_Real          150 /* same as TK_FLOAT, synopsis: r[P2]=P4       */
 #define OP_MemMax        151 /* synopsis: r[P1]=max(r[P1],r[P2])           */
 #define OP_OffsetLimit   152 /* synopsis: if r[P1]>0 then r[P2]=r[P1]+max(0,r[P3]) else r[P2]=(-1) */
 #define OP_AggInverse    153 /* synopsis: accum=r[P3] inverse(r[P2@P5])    */
@@ -15047,20 +15351,23 @@
 #define OP_AggValue      156 /* synopsis: r[P3]=value N=P2                 */
 #define OP_AggFinal      157 /* synopsis: accum=r[P1] N=P2                 */
 #define OP_Expire        158
-#define OP_TableLock     159 /* synopsis: iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3          */
-#define OP_VBegin        160
-#define OP_VCreate       161
-#define OP_VDestroy      162
-#define OP_VOpen         163
-#define OP_VColumn       164 /* synopsis: r[P3]=vcolumn(P2)                */
-#define OP_VRename       165
-#define OP_Pagecount     166
-#define OP_MaxPgcnt      167
-#define OP_Trace         168
-#define OP_CursorHint    169
-#define OP_Noop          170
-#define OP_Explain       171
-#define OP_Abortable     172
+#define OP_CursorLock    159
+#define OP_CursorUnlock  160
+#define OP_TableLock     161 /* synopsis: iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3          */
+#define OP_VBegin        162
+#define OP_VCreate       163
+#define OP_VDestroy      164
+#define OP_VOpen         165
+#define OP_VColumn       166 /* synopsis: r[P3]=vcolumn(P2)                */
+#define OP_VRename       167
+#define OP_Pagecount     168
+#define OP_MaxPgcnt      169
+#define OP_Trace         170
+#define OP_CursorHint    171
+#define OP_ReleaseReg    172 /* synopsis: release r[P1@P2] mask P3         */
+#define OP_Noop          173
+#define OP_Explain       174
+#define OP_Abortable     175
 
 /* Properties such as "out2" or "jump" that are specified in
 ** comments following the "case" for each opcode in the vdbe.c
@@ -15076,25 +15383,26 @@
 /*   0 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x10,\
 /*   8 */ 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x03, 0x03,\
 /*  16 */ 0x01, 0x01, 0x03, 0x12, 0x03, 0x01, 0x09, 0x09,\
-/*  24 */ 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09,\
-/*  32 */ 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01,\
-/*  40 */ 0x01, 0x23, 0x0b, 0x26, 0x26, 0x01, 0x01, 0x03,\
+/*  24 */ 0x09, 0x09, 0x01, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09,\
+/*  32 */ 0x09, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01,\
+/*  40 */ 0x01, 0x01, 0x23, 0x26, 0x26, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x01,\
 /*  48 */ 0x03, 0x03, 0x03, 0x03, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b,\
-/*  56 */ 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/*  64 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x08, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
-/*  72 */ 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
-/*  80 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/*  88 */ 0x12, 0x20, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00,\
-/*  96 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26,\
-/* 104 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x00, 0x12, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00,\
-/* 112 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/* 120 */ 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/* 128 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
+/*  56 */ 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x03, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00,\
+/*  64 */ 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x08, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x10,\
+/*  72 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
+/*  80 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x12,\
+/*  88 */ 0x20, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00,\
+/*  96 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26,\
+/* 104 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x00,\
+/* 112 */ 0x12, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
+/* 120 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
+/* 128 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00,\
 /* 136 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/* 144 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x06, 0x10, 0x00, 0x04,\
+/* 144 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x06, 0x10, 0x00, 0x10, 0x04,\
 /* 152 */ 0x1a, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/* 160 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
-/* 168 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,}
+/* 160 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
+/* 168 */ 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
+}
 
 /* The sqlite3P2Values() routine is able to run faster if it knows
 ** the value of the largest JUMP opcode.  The smaller the maximum
@@ -15102,7 +15410,7 @@
 ** generated this include file strives to group all JUMP opcodes
 ** together near the beginning of the list.
 */
-#define SQLITE_MX_JUMP_OPCODE  61  /* Maximum JUMP opcode */
+#define SQLITE_MX_JUMP_OPCODE  62  /* Maximum JUMP opcode */
 
 /************** End of opcodes.h *********************************************/
 /************** Continuing where we left off in vdbe.h ***********************/
@@ -15118,6 +15426,7 @@
 ** for a description of what each of these routines does.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3VdbeCreate(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Parse *sqlite3VdbeParser(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(Vdbe*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(Vdbe*,int,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(Vdbe*,int,int,int);
@@ -15128,6 +15437,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const char *zP4,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Dup8(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const u8*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddFunctionCall(Parse*,int,int,int,int,const FuncDef*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(Vdbe*,int);
 #if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_TEST_REALLOC_STRESS)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoMallocRequired(Vdbe *p, int N);
@@ -15161,14 +15471,19 @@
 # define sqlite3ExplainBreakpoint(A,B) /*no-op*/
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeAddParseSchemaOp(Vdbe*,int,char*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe*, u32 addr, u8);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P1);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P2);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P3);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe*, int addr, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, int addr, int P1);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, int addr, int P2);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, int addr, int P3);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe*, u16 P5);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeDeletePriorOpcode(Vdbe*, u8 op);
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(Parse*,int addr, int n, u32 mask, int);
+#else
+# define sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(P,A,N,M,F)
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(Vdbe*, int addr, const char *zP4, int N);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(Vdbe*, void *pP4, int p4type);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(Parse*, Index*);
@@ -15217,9 +15532,8 @@
 typedef int (*RecordCompare)(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE RecordCompare sqlite3VdbeFindCompare(UnpackedRecord*);
 
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeLinkSubProgram(Vdbe *, SubProgram *);
-#endif
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeHasSubProgram(Vdbe*);
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3NotPureFunc(sqlite3_context*);
 
@@ -15533,7 +15847,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerRefcount(Pager*);
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMemUsed(Pager*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(const Pager*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerJrnlFile(Pager*);
@@ -16121,6 +16435,7 @@
 #define MUTEX_LOGIC(X)
 #else
 #define MUTEX_LOGIC(X)            X
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
 #endif /* defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) */
 
 /************** End of mutex.h ***********************************************/
@@ -16252,15 +16567,47 @@
 ** is shared by multiple database connections.  Therefore, while parsing
 ** schema information, the Lookaside.bEnabled flag is cleared so that
 ** lookaside allocations are not used to construct the schema objects.
+**
+** New lookaside allocations are only allowed if bDisable==0.  When
+** bDisable is greater than zero, sz is set to zero which effectively
+** disables lookaside without adding a new test for the bDisable flag
+** in a performance-critical path.  sz should be set by to szTrue whenever
+** bDisable changes back to zero.
+**
+** Lookaside buffers are initially held on the pInit list.  As they are
+** used and freed, they are added back to the pFree list.  New allocations
+** come off of pFree first, then pInit as a fallback.  This dual-list
+** allows use to compute a high-water mark - the maximum number of allocations
+** outstanding at any point in the past - by subtracting the number of
+** allocations on the pInit list from the total number of allocations.
+**
+** Enhancement on 2019-12-12:  Two-size-lookaside
+** The default lookaside configuration is 100 slots of 1200 bytes each.
+** The larger slot sizes are important for performance, but they waste
+** a lot of space, as most lookaside allocations are less than 128 bytes.
+** The two-size-lookaside enhancement breaks up the lookaside allocation
+** into two pools:  One of 128-byte slots and the other of the default size
+** (1200-byte) slots.   Allocations are filled from the small-pool first,
+** failing over to the full-size pool if that does not work.  Thus more
+** lookaside slots are available while also using less memory.
+** This enhancement can be omitted by compiling with
+** SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE.
 */
 struct Lookaside {
   u32 bDisable;           /* Only operate the lookaside when zero */
   u16 sz;                 /* Size of each buffer in bytes */
+  u16 szTrue;             /* True value of sz, even if disabled */
   u8 bMalloced;           /* True if pStart obtained from sqlite3_malloc() */
   u32 nSlot;              /* Number of lookaside slots allocated */
   u32 anStat[3];          /* 0: hits.  1: size misses.  2: full misses */
   LookasideSlot *pInit;   /* List of buffers not previously used */
   LookasideSlot *pFree;   /* List of available buffers */
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+  LookasideSlot *pSmallInit; /* List of small buffers not prediously used */
+  LookasideSlot *pSmallFree; /* List of available small buffers */
+  void *pMiddle;          /* First byte past end of full-size buffers and
+                          ** the first byte of LOOKASIDE_SMALL buffers */
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE */
   void *pStart;           /* First byte of available memory space */
   void *pEnd;             /* First byte past end of available space */
 };
@@ -16268,6 +16615,17 @@
   LookasideSlot *pNext;    /* Next buffer in the list of free buffers */
 };
 
+#define DisableLookaside  db->lookaside.bDisable++;db->lookaside.sz=0
+#define EnableLookaside   db->lookaside.bDisable--;\
+   db->lookaside.sz=db->lookaside.bDisable?0:db->lookaside.szTrue
+
+/* Size of the smaller allocations in two-size lookside */
+#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+#  define LOOKASIDE_SMALL           0
+#else
+#  define LOOKASIDE_SMALL         128
+#endif
+
 /*
 ** A hash table for built-in function definitions.  (Application-defined
 ** functions use a regular table table from hash.h.)
@@ -16379,6 +16737,7 @@
     unsigned orphanTrigger : 1; /* Last statement is orphaned TEMP trigger */
     unsigned imposterTable : 1; /* Building an imposter table */
     unsigned reopenMemdb : 1;   /* ATTACH is really a reopen using MemDB */
+    char **azInit;              /* "type", "name", and "tbl_name" columns */
   } init;
   int nVdbeActive;              /* Number of VDBEs currently running */
   int nVdbeRead;                /* Number of active VDBEs that read or write */
@@ -16476,6 +16835,13 @@
 #define ENC(db)        ((db)->enc)
 
 /*
+** A u64 constant where the lower 32 bits are all zeros.  Only the
+** upper 32 bits are included in the argument.  Necessary because some
+** C-compilers still do not accept LL integer literals.
+*/
+#define HI(X)  ((u64)(X)<<32)
+
+/*
 ** Possible values for the sqlite3.flags.
 **
 ** Value constraints (enforced via assert()):
@@ -16490,9 +16856,8 @@
 #define SQLITE_CkptFullFSync  0x00000010  /* Use full fsync for checkpoint */
 #define SQLITE_CacheSpill     0x00000020  /* OK to spill pager cache */
 #define SQLITE_ShortColNames  0x00000040  /* Show short columns names */
-#define SQLITE_CountRows      0x00000080  /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
-                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
-                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
+#define SQLITE_TrustedSchema  0x00000080  /* Allow unsafe functions and
+                                          ** vtabs in the schema definition */
 #define SQLITE_NullCallback   0x00000100  /* Invoke the callback once if the */
                                           /*   result set is empty */
 #define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks   0x00000200  /* Do not enforce check constraints */
@@ -16517,16 +16882,19 @@
 #define SQLITE_Defensive      0x10000000  /* Input SQL is likely hostile */
 #define SQLITE_DqsDDL         0x20000000  /* dbl-quoted strings allowed in DDL*/
 #define SQLITE_DqsDML         0x40000000  /* dbl-quoted strings allowed in DML*/
+#define SQLITE_EnableView     0x80000000  /* Enable the use of views */
+#define SQLITE_CountRows      HI(0x00001) /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
+                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
+                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
 
 /* Flags used only if debugging */
-#define HI(X)  ((u64)(X)<<32)
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
-#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       HI(0x0001)  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
-#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    HI(0x0002)  /* Debug listings of VDBE progs */
-#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      HI(0x0004)  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
-#define SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace HI(0x0008)  /* Trace sqlite3VdbeAddOp() calls */
-#define SQLITE_VdbeEQP        HI(0x0010)  /* Debug EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
-#define SQLITE_ParserTrace    HI(0x0020)  /* PRAGMA parser_trace=ON */
+#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       HI(0x0100000) /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    HI(0x0200000) /* Debug listings of VDBE progs */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      HI(0x0400000) /* True to trace VDBE execution */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace HI(0x0800000) /* Trace sqlite3VdbeAddOp() calls */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeEQP        HI(0x1000000) /* Debug EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
+#define SQLITE_ParserTrace    HI(0x2000000) /* PRAGMA parser_trace=ON */
 #endif
 
 /*
@@ -16537,6 +16905,7 @@
 #define DBFLAG_Vacuum         0x0004  /* Currently in a VACUUM */
 #define DBFLAG_VacuumInto     0x0008  /* Currently running VACUUM INTO */
 #define DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk  0x0010  /* Schema is known to be valid */
+#define DBFLAG_InternalFunc   0x0020  /* Allow use of internal functions */
 
 /*
 ** Bits of the sqlite3.dbOptFlags field that are used by the
@@ -16554,8 +16923,8 @@
 #define SQLITE_OmitNoopJoin   0x0100   /* Omit unused tables in joins */
 #define SQLITE_CountOfView    0x0200   /* The count-of-view optimization */
 #define SQLITE_CursorHints    0x0400   /* Add OP_CursorHint opcodes */
-#define SQLITE_Stat34         0x0800   /* Use STAT3 or STAT4 data */
-   /* TH3 expects the Stat34  ^^^^^^ value to be 0x0800.  Don't change it */
+#define SQLITE_Stat4          0x0800   /* Use STAT4 data */
+   /* TH3 expects the Stat4   ^^^^^^ value to be 0x0800.  Don't change it */
 #define SQLITE_PushDown       0x1000   /* The push-down optimization */
 #define SQLITE_SimplifyJoin   0x2000   /* Convert LEFT JOIN to JOIN */
 #define SQLITE_SkipScan       0x4000   /* Skip-scans */
@@ -16643,6 +17012,8 @@
 **     SQLITE_FUNC_LENGTH    ==  OPFLAG_LENGTHARG
 **     SQLITE_FUNC_TYPEOF    ==  OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG
 **     SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT  ==  SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC from the API
+**     SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT    ==  SQLITE_DIRECTONLY from the API
+**     SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE    ==  SQLITE_INNOCUOUS
 **     SQLITE_FUNC_ENCMASK   depends on SQLITE_UTF* macros in the API
 */
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_ENCMASK  0x0003 /* SQLITE_UTF8, SQLITE_UTF16BE or UTF16LE */
@@ -16659,10 +17030,22 @@
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX   0x1000 /* True for min() and max() aggregates */
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG  0x2000 /* "Slow Change". Value constant during a
                                     ** single query - might change over time */
-#define SQLITE_FUNC_AFFINITY 0x4000 /* Built-in affinity() function */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_TEST     0x4000 /* Built-in testing functions */
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_OFFSET   0x8000 /* Built-in sqlite_offset() function */
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_WINDOW   0x00010000 /* Built-in window-only function */
 #define SQLITE_FUNC_INTERNAL 0x00040000 /* For use by NestedParse() only */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT   0x00080000 /* Not for use in TRIGGERs or VIEWs */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_SUBTYPE  0x00100000 /* Result likely to have sub-type */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE   0x00200000 /* Function has side effects */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_INLINE   0x00400000 /* Functions implemented in-line */
+
+/* Identifier numbers for each in-line function */
+#define INLINEFUNC_coalesce             0
+#define INLINEFUNC_implies_nonnull_row  1
+#define INLINEFUNC_expr_implies_expr    2
+#define INLINEFUNC_expr_compare         3      
+#define INLINEFUNC_affinity             4
+#define INLINEFUNC_unlikely            99  /* Default case */
 
 /*
 ** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
@@ -16678,6 +17061,22 @@
 **   VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
 **     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag.
 **
+**   SFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
+**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
+**     adds the SQLITE_DIRECTONLY flag.
+**
+**   INLINE_FUNC(zName, nArg, iFuncId, mFlags)
+**     zName is the name of a function that is implemented by in-line
+**     byte code rather than by the usual callbacks. The iFuncId
+**     parameter determines the function id.  The mFlags parameter is
+**     optional SQLITE_FUNC_ flags for this function.
+**
+**   TEST_FUNC(zName, nArg, iFuncId, mFlags)
+**     zName is the name of a test-only function implemented by in-line
+**     byte code rather than by the usual callbacks. The iFuncId
+**     parameter determines the function id.  The mFlags parameter is
+**     optional SQLITE_FUNC_ flags for this function.
+**
 **   DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
 **     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
 **     adds the SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG flag.  Used for date & time functions
@@ -16717,6 +17116,16 @@
 #define VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(bNC*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL), \
    SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
+#define SFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
+  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|SQLITE_DIRECTONLY|SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE, \
+   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
+#define INLINE_FUNC(zName, nArg, iArg, mFlags) \
+  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|SQLITE_FUNC_INLINE|SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|(mFlags), \
+   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, noopFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
+#define TEST_FUNC(zName, nArg, iArg, mFlags) \
+  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|SQLITE_FUNC_INTERNAL|SQLITE_FUNC_TEST| \
+         SQLITE_FUNC_INLINE|SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|(mFlags), \
+   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, noopFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
 #define DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   {nArg, SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG|SQLITE_UTF8, \
    0, 0, xFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
@@ -16732,12 +17141,6 @@
 #define LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, arg, flags) \
   {nArg, SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|SQLITE_UTF8|flags, \
    (void *)arg, 0, likeFunc, 0, 0, 0, #zName, {0} }
-#define AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal, xValue) \
-  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(nc*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL), \
-   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, xStep,xFinal,xValue,0,#zName, {0}}
-#define AGGREGATE2(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal, extraFlags) \
-  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(nc*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL)|extraFlags, \
-   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, xStep,xFinal,xFinal,0,#zName, {0}}
 #define WAGGREGATE(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal, xValue, xInverse, f) \
   {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(nc*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL)|f, \
    SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, xStep,xFinal,xValue,xInverse,#zName, {0}}
@@ -16776,32 +17179,52 @@
 struct Module {
   const sqlite3_module *pModule;       /* Callback pointers */
   const char *zName;                   /* Name passed to create_module() */
+  int nRefModule;                      /* Number of pointers to this object */
   void *pAux;                          /* pAux passed to create_module() */
   void (*xDestroy)(void *);            /* Module destructor function */
   Table *pEpoTab;                      /* Eponymous table for this module */
 };
 
 /*
-** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
-** of this structure.
+** Information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
+** of the Column structure, in the Table.aCol[] array.
+**
+** Definitions:
+**
+**   "table column index"     This is the index of the column in the
+**                            Table.aCol[] array, and also the index of
+**                            the column in the original CREATE TABLE stmt.
+**
+**   "storage column index"   This is the index of the column in the
+**                            record BLOB generated by the OP_MakeRecord
+**                            opcode.  The storage column index is less than
+**                            or equal to the table column index.  It is
+**                            equal if and only if there are no VIRTUAL
+**                            columns to the left.
 */
 struct Column {
   char *zName;     /* Name of this column, \000, then the type */
-  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value of this column */
+  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value or GENERATED ALWAYS AS value */
   char *zColl;     /* Collating sequence.  If NULL, use the default */
   u8 notNull;      /* An OE_ code for handling a NOT NULL constraint */
   char affinity;   /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
   u8 szEst;        /* Estimated size of value in this column. sizeof(INT)==1 */
-  u8 colFlags;     /* Boolean properties.  See COLFLAG_ defines below */
+  u16 colFlags;    /* Boolean properties.  See COLFLAG_ defines below */
 };
 
 /* Allowed values for Column.colFlags:
 */
-#define COLFLAG_PRIMKEY  0x0001    /* Column is part of the primary key */
-#define COLFLAG_HIDDEN   0x0002    /* A hidden column in a virtual table */
-#define COLFLAG_HASTYPE  0x0004    /* Type name follows column name */
-#define COLFLAG_UNIQUE   0x0008    /* Column def contains "UNIQUE" or "PK" */
+#define COLFLAG_PRIMKEY   0x0001   /* Column is part of the primary key */
+#define COLFLAG_HIDDEN    0x0002   /* A hidden column in a virtual table */
+#define COLFLAG_HASTYPE   0x0004   /* Type name follows column name */
+#define COLFLAG_UNIQUE    0x0008   /* Column def contains "UNIQUE" or "PK" */
 #define COLFLAG_SORTERREF 0x0010   /* Use sorter-refs with this column */
+#define COLFLAG_VIRTUAL   0x0020   /* GENERATED ALWAYS AS ... VIRTUAL */
+#define COLFLAG_STORED    0x0040   /* GENERATED ALWAYS AS ... STORED */
+#define COLFLAG_NOTAVAIL  0x0080   /* STORED column not yet calculated */
+#define COLFLAG_BUSY      0x0100   /* Blocks recursion on GENERATED columns */
+#define COLFLAG_GENERATED 0x0060   /* Combo: _STORED, _VIRTUAL */
+#define COLFLAG_NOINSERT  0x0062   /* Combo: _HIDDEN, _STORED, _VIRTUAL */
 
 /*
 ** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
@@ -16841,11 +17264,12 @@
 ** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
 ** for a numeric type is a single comparison.  And the BLOB type is first.
 */
-#define SQLITE_AFF_BLOB     'A'
-#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     'B'
-#define SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC  'C'
-#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  'D'
-#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'E'
+#define SQLITE_AFF_NONE     0x40  /* '@' */
+#define SQLITE_AFF_BLOB     0x41  /* 'A' */
+#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     0x42  /* 'B' */
+#define SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC  0x43  /* 'C' */
+#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  0x44  /* 'D' */
+#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     0x45  /* 'E' */
 
 #define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)
 
@@ -16918,10 +17342,17 @@
   sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to vtab instance */
   int nRef;                 /* Number of pointers to this structure */
   u8 bConstraint;           /* True if constraints are supported */
+  u8 eVtabRisk;             /* Riskiness of allowing hacker access */
   int iSavepoint;           /* Depth of the SAVEPOINT stack */
   VTable *pNext;            /* Next in linked list (see above) */
 };
 
+/* Allowed values for VTable.eVtabRisk
+*/
+#define SQLITE_VTABRISK_Low          0
+#define SQLITE_VTABRISK_Normal       1
+#define SQLITE_VTABRISK_High         2
+
 /*
 ** The schema for each SQL table and view is represented in memory
 ** by an instance of the following structure.
@@ -16940,6 +17371,7 @@
   u32 tabFlags;        /* Mask of TF_* values */
   i16 iPKey;           /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the rowid */
   i16 nCol;            /* Number of columns in this table */
+  i16 nNVCol;          /* Number of columns that are not VIRTUAL */
   LogEst nRowLogEst;   /* Estimated rows in table - from sqlite_stat1 table */
   LogEst szTabRow;     /* Estimated size of each table row in bytes */
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COSTMULT
@@ -16966,20 +17398,28 @@
 ** followed by non-hidden columns.  Example:  "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE x USING
 ** vtab1(a HIDDEN, b);".  Since "b" is a non-hidden column but "a" is hidden,
 ** the TF_OOOHidden attribute would apply in this case.  Such tables require
-** special handling during INSERT processing.
+** special handling during INSERT processing. The "OOO" means "Out Of Order".
+**
+** Constraints:
+**
+**         TF_HasVirtual == COLFLAG_Virtual
+**         TF_HasStored  == COLFLAG_Stored
 */
 #define TF_Readonly        0x0001    /* Read-only system table */
 #define TF_Ephemeral       0x0002    /* An ephemeral table */
 #define TF_HasPrimaryKey   0x0004    /* Table has a primary key */
 #define TF_Autoincrement   0x0008    /* Integer primary key is autoincrement */
 #define TF_HasStat1        0x0010    /* nRowLogEst set from sqlite_stat1 */
-#define TF_WithoutRowid    0x0020    /* No rowid.  PRIMARY KEY is the key */
-#define TF_NoVisibleRowid  0x0040    /* No user-visible "rowid" column */
-#define TF_OOOHidden       0x0080    /* Out-of-Order hidden columns */
+#define TF_HasVirtual      0x0020    /* Has one or more VIRTUAL columns */
+#define TF_HasStored       0x0040    /* Has one or more STORED columns */
+#define TF_HasGenerated    0x0060    /* Combo: HasVirtual + HasStored */
+#define TF_WithoutRowid    0x0080    /* No rowid.  PRIMARY KEY is the key */
 #define TF_StatsUsed       0x0100    /* Query planner decisions affected by
                                      ** Index.aiRowLogEst[] values */
-#define TF_HasNotNull      0x0200    /* Contains NOT NULL constraints */
-#define TF_Shadow          0x0400    /* True for a shadow table */
+#define TF_NoVisibleRowid  0x0200    /* No user-visible "rowid" column */
+#define TF_OOOHidden       0x0400    /* Out-of-Order hidden columns */
+#define TF_HasNotNull      0x0800    /* Contains NOT NULL constraints */
+#define TF_Shadow          0x1000    /* True for a shadow table */
 
 /*
 ** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table.  This is
@@ -17113,11 +17553,17 @@
   u16 nKeyField;      /* Number of key columns in the index */
   u16 nAllField;      /* Total columns, including key plus others */
   sqlite3 *db;        /* The database connection */
-  u8 *aSortOrder;     /* Sort order for each column. */
+  u8 *aSortFlags;     /* Sort order for each column. */
   CollSeq *aColl[1];  /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */
 };
 
 /*
+** Allowed bit values for entries in the KeyInfo.aSortFlags[] array.
+*/
+#define KEYINFO_ORDER_DESC    0x01    /* DESC sort order */
+#define KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL 0x02    /* NULL is larger than any other value */
+
+/*
 ** This object holds a record which has been parsed out into individual
 ** fields, for the purposes of doing a comparison.
 **
@@ -17224,7 +17670,8 @@
   unsigned hasStat1:1;     /* aiRowLogEst values come from sqlite_stat1 */
   unsigned bNoQuery:1;     /* Do not use this index to optimize queries */
   unsigned bAscKeyBug:1;   /* True if the bba7b69f9849b5bf bug applies */
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+  unsigned bHasVCol:1;     /* Index references one or more VIRTUAL columns */
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   int nSample;             /* Number of elements in aSample[] */
   int nSampleCol;          /* Size of IndexSample.anEq[] and so on */
   tRowcnt *aAvgEq;         /* Average nEq values for keys not in aSample */
@@ -17256,7 +17703,7 @@
 #define XN_EXPR      (-2)     /* Indexed column is an expression */
 
 /*
-** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat3 table is represented in memory
+** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat4 table is represented in memory
 ** using a structure of this type.  See documentation at the top of the
 ** analyze.c source file for additional information.
 */
@@ -17414,7 +17861,11 @@
 */
 struct Expr {
   u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
-  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
+  char affExpr;          /* affinity, or RAISE type */
+  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER/TK_TRUTH: original value of Expr.op
+                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
+                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth
+                         ** TK_FUNCTION: NC_SelfRef flag if needs OP_PureFunc */
   u32 flags;             /* Various flags.  EP_* See below */
   union {
     char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
@@ -17445,20 +17896,19 @@
                          ** TK_REGISTER: register number
                          ** TK_TRIGGER: 1 -> new, 0 -> old
                          ** EP_Unlikely:  134217728 times likelihood
+                         ** TK_IN: ephemerial table holding RHS
+                         ** TK_SELECT_COLUMN: Number of columns on the LHS
                          ** TK_SELECT: 1st register of result vector */
   ynVar iColumn;         /* TK_COLUMN: column index.  -1 for rowid.
                          ** TK_VARIABLE: variable number (always >= 1).
                          ** TK_SELECT_COLUMN: column of the result vector */
   i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
   i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
-  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER/TK_TRUTH: original value of Expr.op
-                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
-                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
   AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
   union {
     Table *pTab;           /* TK_COLUMN: Table containing column. Can be NULL
                            ** for a column of an index on an expression */
-    Window *pWin;          /* TK_FUNCTION: Window definition for the func */
+    Window *pWin;          /* EP_WinFunc: Window/Filter defn for a function */
     struct {               /* TK_IN, TK_SELECT, and TK_EXISTS */
       int iAddr;             /* Subroutine entry address */
       int regReturn;         /* Register used to hold return address */
@@ -17473,36 +17923,37 @@
 **          EP_Agg == NC_HasAgg == SF_HasAgg
 **          EP_Win == NC_HasWin
 */
-#define EP_FromJoin  0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
-#define EP_Distinct  0x000002 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
-#define EP_HasFunc   0x000004 /* Contains one or more functions of any kind */
-#define EP_FixedCol  0x000008 /* TK_Column with a known fixed value */
-#define EP_Agg       0x000010 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
-#define EP_VarSelect 0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
-#define EP_DblQuoted 0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
-#define EP_InfixFunc 0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
-#define EP_Collate   0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
-#define EP_Generic   0x000200 /* Ignore COLLATE or affinity on this tree */
-#define EP_IntValue  0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
-#define EP_xIsSelect 0x000800 /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
-#define EP_Skip      0x001000 /* Operator does not contribute to affinity */
-#define EP_Reduced   0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
-#define EP_TokenOnly 0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
-#define EP_Win       0x008000 /* Contains window functions */
-#define EP_MemToken  0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
-#define EP_NoReduce  0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
-#define EP_Unlikely  0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
-#define EP_ConstFunc 0x080000 /* A SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT or _SLOCHNG function */
-#define EP_CanBeNull 0x100000 /* Can be null despite NOT NULL constraint */
-#define EP_Subquery  0x200000 /* Tree contains a TK_SELECT operator */
-#define EP_Alias     0x400000 /* Is an alias for a result set column */
-#define EP_Leaf      0x800000 /* Expr.pLeft, .pRight, .u.pSelect all NULL */
-#define EP_WinFunc  0x1000000 /* TK_FUNCTION with Expr.y.pWin set */
-#define EP_Subrtn   0x2000000 /* Uses Expr.y.sub. TK_IN, _SELECT, or _EXISTS */
-#define EP_Quoted   0x4000000 /* TK_ID was originally quoted */
-#define EP_Static   0x8000000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
-#define EP_IsTrue  0x10000000 /* Always has boolean value of TRUE */
-#define EP_IsFalse 0x20000000 /* Always has boolean value of FALSE */
+#define EP_FromJoin   0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
+#define EP_Distinct   0x000002 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
+#define EP_HasFunc    0x000004 /* Contains one or more functions of any kind */
+#define EP_FixedCol   0x000008 /* TK_Column with a known fixed value */
+#define EP_Agg        0x000010 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
+#define EP_VarSelect  0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
+#define EP_DblQuoted  0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
+#define EP_InfixFunc  0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
+#define EP_Collate    0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
+#define EP_Commuted   0x000200 /* Comparison operator has been commuted */
+#define EP_IntValue   0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
+#define EP_xIsSelect  0x000800 /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
+#define EP_Skip       0x001000 /* Operator does not contribute to affinity */
+#define EP_Reduced    0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
+#define EP_TokenOnly  0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
+#define EP_Win        0x008000 /* Contains window functions */
+#define EP_MemToken   0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
+#define EP_NoReduce   0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
+#define EP_Unlikely   0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
+#define EP_ConstFunc  0x080000 /* A SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT or _SLOCHNG function */
+#define EP_CanBeNull  0x100000 /* Can be null despite NOT NULL constraint */
+#define EP_Subquery   0x200000 /* Tree contains a TK_SELECT operator */
+#define EP_Alias      0x400000 /* Is an alias for a result set column */
+#define EP_Leaf       0x800000 /* Expr.pLeft, .pRight, .u.pSelect all NULL */
+#define EP_WinFunc   0x1000000 /* TK_FUNCTION with Expr.y.pWin set */
+#define EP_Subrtn    0x2000000 /* Uses Expr.y.sub. TK_IN, _SELECT, or _EXISTS */
+#define EP_Quoted    0x4000000 /* TK_ID was originally quoted */
+#define EP_Static    0x8000000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
+#define EP_IsTrue   0x10000000 /* Always has boolean value of TRUE */
+#define EP_IsFalse  0x20000000 /* Always has boolean value of FALSE */
+#define EP_FromDDL  0x40000000 /* Originates from sqlite_master */
 
 /*
 ** The EP_Propagate mask is a set of properties that automatically propagate
@@ -17547,6 +17998,18 @@
 #define EXPRDUP_REDUCE         0x0001  /* Used reduced-size Expr nodes */
 
 /*
+** True if the expression passed as an argument was a function with
+** an OVER() clause (a window function).
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+# define IsWindowFunc(p) 0
+#else
+# define IsWindowFunc(p) ( \
+    ExprHasProperty((p), EP_WinFunc) && p->y.pWin->eFrmType!=TK_FILTER \
+ )
+#endif
+
+/*
 ** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
 ** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
 ** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
@@ -17554,25 +18017,31 @@
 ** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
 ** field is not used.
 **
-** By default the Expr.zSpan field holds a human-readable description of
-** the expression that is used in the generation of error messages and
-** column labels.  In this case, Expr.zSpan is typically the text of a
-** column expression as it exists in a SELECT statement.  However, if
-** the bSpanIsTab flag is set, then zSpan is overloaded to mean the name
-** of the result column in the form: DATABASE.TABLE.COLUMN.  This later
-** form is used for name resolution with nested FROM clauses.
+** In order to try to keep memory usage down, the Expr.a.zEName field
+** is used for multiple purposes:
+**
+**     eEName          Usage
+**    ----------       -------------------------
+**    ENAME_NAME       (1) the AS of result set column
+**                     (2) COLUMN= of an UPDATE
+**
+**    ENAME_TAB        DB.TABLE.NAME used to resolve names
+**                     of subqueries
+**
+**    ENAME_SPAN       Text of the original result set
+**                     expression.
 */
 struct ExprList {
   int nExpr;             /* Number of expressions on the list */
   struct ExprList_item { /* For each expression in the list */
     Expr *pExpr;            /* The parse tree for this expression */
-    char *zName;            /* Token associated with this expression */
-    char *zSpan;            /* Original text of the expression */
-    u8 sortOrder;           /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
+    char *zEName;           /* Token associated with this expression */
+    u8 sortFlags;           /* Mask of KEYINFO_ORDER_* flags */
+    unsigned eEName :2;     /* Meaning of zEName */
     unsigned done :1;       /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
-    unsigned bSpanIsTab :1; /* zSpan holds DB.TABLE.COLUMN */
     unsigned reusable :1;   /* Constant expression is reusable */
     unsigned bSorterRef :1; /* Defer evaluation until after sorting */
+    unsigned bNulls: 1;     /* True if explicit "NULLS FIRST/LAST" */
     union {
       struct {
         u16 iOrderByCol;      /* For ORDER BY, column number in result set */
@@ -17584,6 +18053,13 @@
 };
 
 /*
+** Allowed values for Expr.a.eEName
+*/
+#define ENAME_NAME  0       /* The AS clause of a result set */
+#define ENAME_SPAN  1       /* Complete text of the result set expression */
+#define ENAME_TAB   2       /* "DB.TABLE.NAME" for the result set */
+
+/*
 ** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
 ** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
 **
@@ -17646,6 +18122,7 @@
       unsigned isCorrelated :1;  /* True if sub-query is correlated */
       unsigned viaCoroutine :1;  /* Implemented as a co-routine */
       unsigned isRecursive :1;   /* True for recursive reference in WITH */
+      unsigned fromDDL :1;       /* Comes from sqlite_master */
     } fg;
     int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
     Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
@@ -17749,21 +18226,24 @@
 **    NC_HasWin    == EP_Win
 **
 */
-#define NC_AllowAgg  0x0001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
-#define NC_PartIdx   0x0002  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
-#define NC_IsCheck   0x0004  /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
-#define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
-#define NC_HasAgg    0x0010  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
-#define NC_IdxExpr   0x0020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
-#define NC_VarSelect 0x0040  /* A correlated subquery has been seen */
-#define NC_UEList    0x0080  /* True if uNC.pEList is used */
-#define NC_UAggInfo  0x0100  /* True if uNC.pAggInfo is used */
-#define NC_UUpsert   0x0200  /* True if uNC.pUpsert is used */
-#define NC_MinMaxAgg 0x1000  /* min/max aggregates seen.  See note above */
-#define NC_Complex   0x2000  /* True if a function or subquery seen */
-#define NC_AllowWin  0x4000  /* Window functions are allowed here */
-#define NC_HasWin    0x8000  /* One or more window functions seen */
-#define NC_IsDDL    0x10000  /* Resolving names in a CREATE statement */
+#define NC_AllowAgg  0x00001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
+#define NC_PartIdx   0x00002  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
+#define NC_IsCheck   0x00004  /* True if resolving a CHECK constraint */
+#define NC_GenCol    0x00008  /* True for a GENERATED ALWAYS AS clause */
+#define NC_HasAgg    0x00010  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
+#define NC_IdxExpr   0x00020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
+#define NC_SelfRef   0x0002e  /* Combo: PartIdx, isCheck, GenCol, and IdxExpr */
+#define NC_VarSelect 0x00040  /* A correlated subquery has been seen */
+#define NC_UEList    0x00080  /* True if uNC.pEList is used */
+#define NC_UAggInfo  0x00100  /* True if uNC.pAggInfo is used */
+#define NC_UUpsert   0x00200  /* True if uNC.pUpsert is used */
+#define NC_MinMaxAgg 0x01000  /* min/max aggregates seen.  See note above */
+#define NC_Complex   0x02000  /* True if a function or subquery seen */
+#define NC_AllowWin  0x04000  /* Window functions are allowed here */
+#define NC_HasWin    0x08000  /* One or more window functions seen */
+#define NC_IsDDL     0x10000  /* Resolving names in a CREATE statement */
+#define NC_InAggFunc 0x20000  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
+#define NC_FromDDL   0x40000  /* SQL text comes from sqlite_master */
 
 /*
 ** An instance of the following object describes a single ON CONFLICT
@@ -17813,13 +18293,13 @@
 ** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
 */
 struct Select {
-  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
   u8 op;                 /* One of: TK_UNION TK_ALL TK_INTERSECT TK_EXCEPT */
   LogEst nSelectRow;     /* Estimated number of result rows */
   u32 selFlags;          /* Various SF_* values */
   int iLimit, iOffset;   /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
   u32 selId;             /* Unique identifier number for this SELECT */
   int addrOpenEphm[2];   /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */
+  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
   SrcList *pSrc;         /* The FROM clause */
   Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
   ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
@@ -17844,25 +18324,28 @@
 **     SF_MinMaxAgg  == NC_MinMaxAgg     == SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX
 **     SF_FixedLimit == WHERE_USE_LIMIT
 */
-#define SF_Distinct       0x00001  /* Output should be DISTINCT */
-#define SF_All            0x00002  /* Includes the ALL keyword */
-#define SF_Resolved       0x00004  /* Identifiers have been resolved */
-#define SF_Aggregate      0x00008  /* Contains agg functions or a GROUP BY */
-#define SF_HasAgg         0x00010  /* Contains aggregate functions */
-#define SF_UsesEphemeral  0x00020  /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
-#define SF_Expanded       0x00040  /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
-#define SF_HasTypeInfo    0x00080  /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */
-#define SF_Compound       0x00100  /* Part of a compound query */
-#define SF_Values         0x00200  /* Synthesized from VALUES clause */
-#define SF_MultiValue     0x00400  /* Single VALUES term with multiple rows */
-#define SF_NestedFrom     0x00800  /* Part of a parenthesized FROM clause */
-#define SF_MinMaxAgg      0x01000  /* Aggregate containing min() or max() */
-#define SF_Recursive      0x02000  /* The recursive part of a recursive CTE */
-#define SF_FixedLimit     0x04000  /* nSelectRow set by a constant LIMIT */
-#define SF_MaybeConvert   0x08000  /* Need convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
-#define SF_Converted      0x10000  /* By convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
-#define SF_IncludeHidden  0x20000  /* Include hidden columns in output */
-#define SF_ComplexResult  0x40000  /* Result contains subquery or function */
+#define SF_Distinct      0x0000001 /* Output should be DISTINCT */
+#define SF_All           0x0000002 /* Includes the ALL keyword */
+#define SF_Resolved      0x0000004 /* Identifiers have been resolved */
+#define SF_Aggregate     0x0000008 /* Contains agg functions or a GROUP BY */
+#define SF_HasAgg        0x0000010 /* Contains aggregate functions */
+#define SF_UsesEphemeral 0x0000020 /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
+#define SF_Expanded      0x0000040 /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
+#define SF_HasTypeInfo   0x0000080 /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */
+#define SF_Compound      0x0000100 /* Part of a compound query */
+#define SF_Values        0x0000200 /* Synthesized from VALUES clause */
+#define SF_MultiValue    0x0000400 /* Single VALUES term with multiple rows */
+#define SF_NestedFrom    0x0000800 /* Part of a parenthesized FROM clause */
+#define SF_MinMaxAgg     0x0001000 /* Aggregate containing min() or max() */
+#define SF_Recursive     0x0002000 /* The recursive part of a recursive CTE */
+#define SF_FixedLimit    0x0004000 /* nSelectRow set by a constant LIMIT */
+#define SF_MaybeConvert  0x0008000 /* Need convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
+#define SF_Converted     0x0010000 /* By convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
+#define SF_IncludeHidden 0x0020000 /* Include hidden columns in output */
+#define SF_ComplexResult 0x0040000 /* Result contains subquery or function */
+#define SF_WhereBegin    0x0080000 /* Really a WhereBegin() call.  Debug Only */
+#define SF_WinRewrite    0x0100000 /* Window function rewrite accomplished */
+#define SF_View          0x0200000 /* SELECT statement is a view */
 
 /*
 ** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
@@ -18142,8 +18625,8 @@
 
 #define PARSE_MODE_NORMAL        0
 #define PARSE_MODE_DECLARE_VTAB  1
-#define PARSE_MODE_RENAME_COLUMN 2
-#define PARSE_MODE_RENAME_TABLE  3
+#define PARSE_MODE_RENAME        2
+#define PARSE_MODE_UNMAP         3
 
 /*
 ** Sizes and pointers of various parts of the Parse object.
@@ -18165,7 +18648,7 @@
 #if defined(SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE)
   #define IN_RENAME_OBJECT 0
 #else
-  #define IN_RENAME_OBJECT (pParse->eParseMode>=PARSE_MODE_RENAME_COLUMN)
+  #define IN_RENAME_OBJECT (pParse->eParseMode>=PARSE_MODE_RENAME)
 #endif
 
 #if defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE)
@@ -18316,7 +18799,7 @@
 struct DbFixer {
   Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
   Schema *pSchema;    /* Fix items to this schema */
-  int bVarOnly;       /* Check for variable references only */
+  u8 bTemp;           /* True for TEMP schema entries */
   const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
   const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
   const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
@@ -18367,11 +18850,12 @@
 */
 struct Sqlite3Config {
   int bMemstat;                     /* True to enable memory status */
-  int bCoreMutex;                   /* True to enable core mutexing */
-  int bFullMutex;                   /* True to enable full mutexing */
-  int bOpenUri;                     /* True to interpret filenames as URIs */
-  int bUseCis;                      /* Use covering indices for full-scans */
-  int bSmallMalloc;                 /* Avoid large memory allocations if true */
+  u8 bCoreMutex;                    /* True to enable core mutexing */
+  u8 bFullMutex;                    /* True to enable full mutexing */
+  u8 bOpenUri;                      /* True to interpret filenames as URIs */
+  u8 bUseCis;                       /* Use covering indices for full-scans */
+  u8 bSmallMalloc;                  /* Avoid large memory allocations if true */
+  u8 bExtraSchemaChecks;            /* Verify type,name,tbl_name in schema */
   int mxStrlen;                     /* Maximum string length */
   int neverCorrupt;                 /* Database is always well-formed */
   int szLookaside;                  /* Default lookaside buffer size */
@@ -18420,9 +18904,9 @@
   int (*xTestCallback)(int);        /* Invoked by sqlite3FaultSim() */
 #endif
   int bLocaltimeFault;              /* True to fail localtime() calls */
-  int bInternalFunctions;           /* Internal SQL functions are visible */
   int iOnceResetThreshold;          /* When to reset OP_Once counters */
   u32 szSorterRef;                  /* Min size in bytes to use sorter-refs */
+  unsigned int iPrngSeed;           /* Alternative fixed seed for the PRNG */
 };
 
 /*
@@ -18452,7 +18936,7 @@
   int (*xSelectCallback)(Walker*,Select*);  /* Callback for SELECTs */
   void (*xSelectCallback2)(Walker*,Select*);/* Second callback for SELECTs */
   int walkerDepth;                          /* Number of subqueries */
-  u8 eCode;                                 /* A small processing code */
+  u16 eCode;                                /* A small processing code */
   union {                                   /* Extra data for callback */
     NameContext *pNC;                         /* Naming context */
     int n;                                    /* A counter */
@@ -18468,6 +18952,7 @@
     struct WindowRewrite *pRewrite;           /* Window rewrite context */
     struct WhereConst *pConst;                /* WHERE clause constants */
     struct RenameCtx *pRename;                /* RENAME COLUMN context */
+    struct Table *pTab;                       /* Table of generated column */
   } u;
 };
 
@@ -18519,10 +19004,11 @@
 #endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
 
 /*
-** This object is used in various ways, all related to window functions
+** This object is used in various ways, most (but not all) related to window
+** functions.
 **
 **   (1) A single instance of this structure is attached to the
-**       the Expr.pWin field for each window function in an expression tree.
+**       the Expr.y.pWin field for each window function in an expression tree.
 **       This object holds the information contained in the OVER clause,
 **       plus additional fields used during code generation.
 **
@@ -18533,6 +19019,10 @@
 **   (3) The terms of the WINDOW clause of a SELECT are instances of this
 **       object on a linked list attached to Select.pWinDefn.
 **
+**   (4) For an aggregate function with a FILTER clause, an instance
+**       of this object is stored in Expr.y.pWin with eFrmType set to
+**       TK_FILTER. In this case the only field used is Window.pFilter.
+**
 ** The uses (1) and (2) are really the same Window object that just happens
 ** to be accessible in two different ways.  Use case (3) are separate objects.
 */
@@ -18548,12 +19038,13 @@
   u8 eExclude;            /* TK_NO, TK_CURRENT, TK_TIES, TK_GROUP, or 0 */
   Expr *pStart;           /* Expression for "<expr> PRECEDING" */
   Expr *pEnd;             /* Expression for "<expr> FOLLOWING" */
+  Window **ppThis;        /* Pointer to this object in Select.pWin list */
   Window *pNextWin;       /* Next window function belonging to this SELECT */
   Expr *pFilter;          /* The FILTER expression */
   FuncDef *pFunc;         /* The function */
   int iEphCsr;            /* Partition buffer or Peer buffer */
-  int regAccum;
-  int regResult;
+  int regAccum;           /* Accumulator */
+  int regResult;          /* Interim result */
   int csrApp;             /* Function cursor (used by min/max) */
   int regApp;             /* Function register (also used by min/max) */
   int regPart;            /* Array of registers for PARTITION BY values */
@@ -18563,15 +19054,19 @@
   int regOne;             /* Register containing constant value 1 */
   int regStartRowid;
   int regEndRowid;
+  u8 bExprArgs;           /* Defer evaluation of window function arguments
+                          ** due to the SQLITE_SUBTYPE flag */
 };
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowDelete(sqlite3*, Window*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowUnlinkFromSelect(Window*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowListDelete(sqlite3 *db, Window *p);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Window *sqlite3WindowAlloc(Parse*, int, int, Expr*, int , Expr*, u8);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowAttach(Parse*, Expr*, Window*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WindowCompare(Parse*, Window*, Window*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowCodeInit(Parse*, Window*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowLink(Select *pSel, Window *pWin);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WindowCompare(Parse*, Window*, Window*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowCodeInit(Parse*, Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WindowCodeStep(Parse*, Select*, WhereInfo*, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WindowRewrite(Parse*, Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExpandSubquery(Parse*, struct SrcList_item*);
@@ -18837,12 +19332,13 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(Parse*,Expr*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSimplifiedAndOr(Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprFunctionUsable(Parse*,Expr*,FuncDef*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*, u32);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprUnmapAndDelete(Parse*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
@@ -18861,11 +19357,18 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteColumnNames(sqlite3*,Table*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ColumnsFromExprList(Parse*,ExprList*,i16*,Column**);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectAddColumnTypeAndCollation(Parse*,Table*,Select*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectAddColumnTypeAndCollation(Parse*,Table*,Select*,char);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,Select*,char);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(Table*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE i16 sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(Index*, i16);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE i16 sqlite3TableColumnToIndex(Index*, i16);
+#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+# define sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(T,X) (X)  /* No-op pass-through */
+# define sqlite3StorageColumnToTable(T,X) (X)  /* No-op pass-through */
+#else
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   i16 sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(Table*, i16);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   i16 sqlite3StorageColumnToTable(Table*, i16);
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
 #if SQLITE_ENABLE_HIDDEN_COLUMNS
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(Table*, Column*);
@@ -18878,6 +19381,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,Expr*,const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddGenerated(Parse*,Expr*,Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                     sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
@@ -18935,6 +19439,9 @@
 # define sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(X)
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, Select*, IdList*, int, Upsert*);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ComputeGeneratedColumns(Parse*, int, Table*);
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int*,int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(Parse*, IdList*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
@@ -18957,6 +19464,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                          Expr*,ExprList*,u32,Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectReset(Parse*, Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
@@ -18979,17 +19487,20 @@
 #define ONEPASS_OFF      0        /* Use of ONEPASS not allowed */
 #define ONEPASS_SINGLE   1        /* ONEPASS valid for a single row update */
 #define ONEPASS_MULTI    2        /* ONEPASS is valid for multiple rows */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereUsesDeferredSeek(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeLoadIndexColumn(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int, u8);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(Vdbe*, Table*, int, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeMove(Parse*, int, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGeneratedColumn(Parse*, Column*, int);
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeCopy(Parse*, Expr*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeFactorable(Parse*, Expr*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit(Parse*, Expr*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse*, Expr*, int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse*, Expr*, int);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, u8);
 #define SQLITE_ECEL_DUP      0x01  /* Deep, not shallow copies */
 #define SQLITE_ECEL_FACTOR   0x02  /* Factor out constant terms */
@@ -19031,6 +19542,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Savepoint(Parse*, int, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CloseSavepoints(sqlite3 *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3LeaveMutexAndCloseZombie(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3IsTrueOrFalse(const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIdToTrueFalse(Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprTruthValue(const Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
@@ -19126,6 +19638,7 @@
 #endif
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetJoinExpr(Expr*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
@@ -19163,7 +19676,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE LogEst sqlite3LogEstFromDouble(double);
 #endif
 #if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS) || \
-    defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4) || \
+    defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4) || \
     defined(SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u64 sqlite3LogEstToInt(LogEst);
 #endif
@@ -19229,9 +19742,10 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(Parse *pParse, Expr*, const Token*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(Parse*,Expr*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WritableSchema(sqlite3*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse*, const char*,const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AddInt64(i64*,i64);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SubInt64(i64*,i64);
@@ -19264,7 +19778,6 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE const char sqlite3StrBINARY[];
 SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
 SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3CtypeMap[];
-SQLITE_PRIVATE const Token sqlite3IntTokens[];
 SQLITE_PRIVATE SQLITE_WSD struct Sqlite3Config sqlite3Config;
 SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDefHash sqlite3BuiltinFunctions;
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WSD
@@ -19286,7 +19799,12 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MatchEName(
+  const struct ExprList_item*,
+  const char*,
+  const char*,
+  const char*
+);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
@@ -19318,6 +19836,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoRef(KeyInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOfIndex(Parse*, Index*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoFromExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3HasExplicitNulls(Parse*, ExprList*);
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
@@ -19350,8 +19869,7 @@
 # define sqlite3ExprCheckIN(x,y) SQLITE_OK
 #endif
 
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(
     Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,int,int,int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
@@ -19398,6 +19916,7 @@
 #  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) 0
 #  define sqlite3VtabLock(X)
 #  define sqlite3VtabUnlock(X)
+#  define sqlite3VtabModuleUnref(D,X)
 #  define sqlite3VtabUnlockList(X)
 #  define sqlite3VtabSavepoint(X, Y, Z) SQLITE_OK
 #  define sqlite3GetVTable(X,Y)  ((VTable*)0)
@@ -19409,6 +19928,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabCommit(sqlite3 *db);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabLock(VTable *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabUnlock(VTable *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabModuleUnref(sqlite3*,Module*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabUnlockList(sqlite3*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabSavepoint(sqlite3 *, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabImportErrmsg(Vdbe*, sqlite3_vtab*);
@@ -19422,6 +19942,12 @@
    );
 #  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) ((db)->nVTrans>0 && (db)->aVTrans==0)
 #endif
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadOnlyShadowTables(sqlite3 *db);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ShadowTableName(sqlite3 *db, const char *zName);
+#else
+# define sqlite3ShadowTableName(A,B) 0
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabEponymousTableInit(Parse*,Module*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabEponymousTableClear(sqlite3*,Module*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(Parse*,Table*);
@@ -19443,6 +19969,7 @@
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCompareCollSeq(Parse*,Expr*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3JournalModename(int);
@@ -19749,7 +20276,6 @@
 ** non-ASCII UTF character. Hence the test for whether or not a character is
 ** part of an identifier is 0x46.
 */
-#ifdef SQLITE_ASCII
 SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3CtypeMap[256] = {
   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,  /* 00..07    ........ */
   0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,  /* 08..0f    ........ */
@@ -19787,7 +20313,6 @@
   0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40,  /* f0..f7    ........ */
   0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40, 0x40   /* f8..ff    ........ */
 };
-#endif
 
 /* EVIDENCE-OF: R-02982-34736 In order to maintain full backwards
 ** compatibility for legacy applications, the URI filename capability is
@@ -19852,9 +20377,18 @@
 ** changed as start-time using sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE)
 ** or at run-time for an individual database connection using
 ** sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE);
+**
+** With the two-size-lookaside enhancement, less lookaside is required.
+** The default configuration of 1200,40 actually provides 30 1200-byte slots
+** and 93 128-byte slots, which is more lookaside than is available
+** using the older 1200,100 configuration without two-size-lookaside.
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOOKASIDE
-# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOOKASIDE 1200,100
+# ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+#   define SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOOKASIDE 1200,100  /* 120KB of memory */
+# else
+#   define SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOOKASIDE 1200,40   /* 48KB of memory */
+# endif
 #endif
 
 
@@ -19876,6 +20410,7 @@
    SQLITE_USE_URI,            /* bOpenUri */
    SQLITE_ALLOW_COVERING_INDEX_SCAN,   /* bUseCis */
    0,                         /* bSmallMalloc */
+   1,                         /* bExtraSchemaChecks */
    0x7ffffffe,                /* mxStrlen */
    0,                         /* neverCorrupt */
    SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOOKASIDE,  /* szLookaside, nLookaside */
@@ -19919,9 +20454,9 @@
    0,                         /* xTestCallback */
 #endif
    0,                         /* bLocaltimeFault */
-   0,                         /* bInternalFunctions */
    0x7ffffffe,                /* iOnceResetThreshold */
    SQLITE_DEFAULT_SORTERREF_SIZE,   /* szSorterRef */
+   0,                         /* iPrngSeed */
 };
 
 /*
@@ -19931,14 +20466,6 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDefHash sqlite3BuiltinFunctions;
 
-/*
-** Constant tokens for values 0 and 1.
-*/
-SQLITE_PRIVATE const Token sqlite3IntTokens[] = {
-   { "0", 1 },
-   { "1", 1 }
-};
-
 #ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
 /*
 ** The following performance counter can be used in place of
@@ -20291,7 +20818,8 @@
 ** True if Mem X is a NULL-nochng type.
 */
 #define MemNullNochng(X) \
-  ((X)->flags==(MEM_Null|MEM_Zero) && (X)->n==0 && (X)->u.nZero==0)
+  (((X)->flags&MEM_TypeMask)==(MEM_Null|MEM_Zero) \
+    && (X)->n==0 && (X)->u.nZero==0)
 
 /*
 ** Return true if a memory cell is not marked as invalid.  This macro
@@ -20487,11 +21015,11 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeError(Vdbe*, const char *, ...);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeFreeCursor(Vdbe *, VdbeCursor*);
 void sqliteVdbePopStack(Vdbe*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int SQLITE_NOINLINE sqlite3VdbeFinishMoveto(VdbeCursor*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(VdbeCursor**, int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCursorRestore(VdbeCursor*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(u32);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3VdbeOneByteSerialTypeLen(u8);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialType(Mem*, int, u32*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(unsigned char*, Mem*, u32);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(const unsigned char*, u32, Mem*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData(sqlite3*, AuxData**, int, int);
@@ -20534,7 +21062,7 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity(Mem*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(Mem*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(Mem*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemCast(Mem*,u8,u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemCast(Mem*,u8,u8);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(BtCursor*,u32,u32,Mem*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(Mem *p);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemFinalize(Mem*, FuncDef*);
@@ -20600,7 +21128,7 @@
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbePrintSql(Vdbe*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, StrAccum *pStr);
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate(Mem*, u8);
@@ -20792,6 +21320,10 @@
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3LookasideUsed(sqlite3 *db, int *pHighwater){
   u32 nInit = countLookasideSlots(db->lookaside.pInit);
   u32 nFree = countLookasideSlots(db->lookaside.pFree);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+  nInit += countLookasideSlots(db->lookaside.pSmallInit);
+  nFree += countLookasideSlots(db->lookaside.pSmallFree);
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE */
   if( pHighwater ) *pHighwater = db->lookaside.nSlot - nInit;
   return db->lookaside.nSlot - (nInit+nFree);
 }
@@ -20824,6 +21356,15 @@
           db->lookaside.pInit = db->lookaside.pFree;
           db->lookaside.pFree = 0;
         }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+        p = db->lookaside.pSmallFree;
+        if( p ){
+          while( p->pNext ) p = p->pNext;
+          p->pNext = db->lookaside.pSmallInit;
+          db->lookaside.pSmallInit = db->lookaside.pSmallFree;
+          db->lookaside.pSmallFree = 0;
+        }
+#endif
       }
       break;
     }
@@ -21675,7 +22216,7 @@
         r = p->s*1000.0 + 210866760000000.0;
         if( r>=0.0 && r<464269060800000.0 ){
           clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
-          p->iJD = (sqlite3_int64)r;
+          p->iJD = (sqlite3_int64)(r + 0.5);
           p->validJD = 1;
           p->rawS = 0;
           rc = 0;
@@ -22454,7 +22995,7 @@
   ** down into the VFS layer.  Some SQLITE_OPEN_ flags (for example,
   ** SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX or SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE) are blocked before
   ** reaching the VFS. */
-  rc = pVfs->xOpen(pVfs, zPath, pFile, flags & 0x87f7f, pFlagsOut);
+  rc = pVfs->xOpen(pVfs, zPath, pFile, flags & 0x1087f7f, pFlagsOut);
   assert( rc==SQLITE_OK || pFile->pMethods==0 );
   return rc;
 }
@@ -22497,7 +23038,15 @@
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nByte, char *zBufOut){
-  return pVfs->xRandomness(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
+  if( sqlite3Config.iPrngSeed ){
+    memset(zBufOut, 0, nByte);
+    if( ALWAYS(nByte>(signed)sizeof(unsigned)) ) nByte = sizeof(unsigned int);
+    memcpy(zBufOut, &sqlite3Config.iPrngSeed, nByte);
+    return SQLITE_OK;
+  }else{
+    return pVfs->xRandomness(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
+  }
+  
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nMicro){
   return pVfs->xSleep(pVfs, nMicro);
@@ -25964,7 +26513,7 @@
 ******************************************************************************
 **
 ** This file contains inline asm code for retrieving "high-performance"
-** counters for x86 class CPUs.
+** counters for x86 and x86_64 class CPUs.
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_HWTIME_H
 #define SQLITE_HWTIME_H
@@ -25975,8 +26524,9 @@
 ** processor and returns that value.  This can be used for high-res
 ** profiling.
 */
-#if (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
-      (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
+#if !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && \
+    (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
+    (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
 
   #if defined(__GNUC__)
 
@@ -25997,7 +26547,7 @@
 
   #endif
 
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long val;
@@ -26005,7 +26555,7 @@
       return val;
   }
  
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long long retval;
@@ -26022,14 +26572,13 @@
 
 #else
 
-  #error Need implementation of sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform.
-
   /*
-  ** To compile without implementing sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform,
-  ** you can remove the above #error and use the following
-  ** stub function.  You will lose timing support for many
-  ** of the debugging and testing utilities, but it should at
-  ** least compile and run.
+  ** asm() is needed for hardware timing support.  Without asm(),
+  ** disable the sqlite3Hwtime() routine.
+  **
+  ** sqlite3Hwtime() is only used for some obscure debugging
+  ** and analysis configurations, not in any deliverable, so this
+  ** should not be a great loss.
   */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){ return ((sqlite_uint64)0); }
 
@@ -26614,18 +27163,26 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Default value of the hard heap limit.  0 means "no limit".
+*/
+#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY
+# define SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY 0
+#endif
+
+/*
 ** State information local to the memory allocation subsystem.
 */
 static SQLITE_WSD struct Mem0Global {
   sqlite3_mutex *mutex;         /* Mutex to serialize access */
   sqlite3_int64 alarmThreshold; /* The soft heap limit */
+  sqlite3_int64 hardLimit;      /* The hard upper bound on memory */
 
   /*
   ** True if heap is nearly "full" where "full" is defined by the
   ** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit() setting.
   */
   int nearlyFull;
-} mem0 = { 0, 0, 0 };
+} mem0 = { 0, SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY, SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY, 0 };
 
 #define mem0 GLOBAL(struct Mem0Global, mem0)
 
@@ -26655,8 +27212,15 @@
 #endif
 
 /*
-** Set the soft heap-size limit for the library. Passing a zero or 
-** negative value indicates no limit.
+** Set the soft heap-size limit for the library.  An argument of
+** zero disables the limit.  A negative argument is a no-op used to
+** obtain the return value.
+**
+** The return value is the value of the heap limit just before this
+** interface was called.
+**
+** If the hard heap limit is enabled, then the soft heap limit cannot
+** be disabled nor raised above the hard heap limit.
 */
 SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 n){
   sqlite3_int64 priorLimit;
@@ -26672,6 +27236,9 @@
     sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem0.mutex);
     return priorLimit;
   }
+  if( mem0.hardLimit>0 && (n>mem0.hardLimit || n==0) ){
+    n = mem0.hardLimit;
+  }
   mem0.alarmThreshold = n;
   nUsed = sqlite3StatusValue(SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED);
   mem0.nearlyFull = (n>0 && n<=nUsed);
@@ -26686,6 +27253,37 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Set the hard heap-size limit for the library. An argument of zero
+** disables the hard heap limit.  A negative argument is a no-op used
+** to obtain the return value without affecting the hard heap limit.
+**
+** The return value is the value of the hard heap limit just prior to
+** calling this interface.
+**
+** Setting the hard heap limit will also activate the soft heap limit
+** and constrain the soft heap limit to be no more than the hard heap
+** limit.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_hard_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 n){
+  sqlite3_int64 priorLimit;
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
+  int rc = sqlite3_initialize();
+  if( rc ) return -1;
+#endif
+  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem0.mutex);
+  priorLimit = mem0.hardLimit;
+  if( n>=0 ){
+    mem0.hardLimit = n;
+    if( n<mem0.alarmThreshold || mem0.alarmThreshold==0 ){
+      mem0.alarmThreshold = n;
+    }
+  }
+  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem0.mutex);
+  return priorLimit;
+}
+
+
+/*
 ** Initialize the memory allocation subsystem.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MallocInit(void){
@@ -26771,19 +27369,19 @@
   ** following xRoundup() call. */
   nFull = sqlite3GlobalConfig.m.xRoundup(n);
 
-#ifdef SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY
-  if( sqlite3StatusValue(SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED)+nFull>SQLITE_MAX_MEMORY ){
-    *pp = 0;
-    return;
-  }
-#endif
-
   sqlite3StatusHighwater(SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE, n);
   if( mem0.alarmThreshold>0 ){
     sqlite3_int64 nUsed = sqlite3StatusValue(SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED);
     if( nUsed >= mem0.alarmThreshold - nFull ){
       mem0.nearlyFull = 1;
       sqlite3MallocAlarm(nFull);
+      if( mem0.hardLimit ){
+        nUsed = sqlite3StatusValue(SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED);
+        if( nUsed >= mem0.hardLimit - nFull ){
+          *pp = 0;
+          return;
+        }
+      }
     }else{
       mem0.nearlyFull = 0;
     }
@@ -26864,10 +27462,17 @@
   assert( sqlite3MemdebugHasType(p, MEMTYPE_HEAP) );
   return sqlite3GlobalConfig.m.xSize(p);
 }
+static int lookasideMallocSize(sqlite3 *db, void *p){
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE    
+  return p<db->lookaside.pMiddle ? db->lookaside.szTrue : LOOKASIDE_SMALL;
+#else
+  return db->lookaside.szTrue;
+#endif  
+}
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3 *db, void *p){
   assert( p!=0 );
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
   if( db==0 || !isLookaside(db,p) ){
-#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
     if( db==0 ){
       assert( sqlite3MemdebugNoType(p, (u8)~MEMTYPE_HEAP) );
       assert( sqlite3MemdebugHasType(p, MEMTYPE_HEAP) );
@@ -26875,12 +27480,23 @@
       assert( sqlite3MemdebugHasType(p, (MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE|MEMTYPE_HEAP)) );
       assert( sqlite3MemdebugNoType(p, (u8)~(MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE|MEMTYPE_HEAP)) );
     }
-#endif
-    return sqlite3GlobalConfig.m.xSize(p);
-  }else{
-    assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
-    return db->lookaside.sz;
-  }
+  }
+#endif
+  if( db ){
+    if( ((uptr)p)<(uptr)(db->lookaside.pEnd) ){
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+      if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)(db->lookaside.pMiddle) ){
+        assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
+        return LOOKASIDE_SMALL;
+      }
+#endif
+      if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)(db->lookaside.pStart) ){
+        assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
+        return db->lookaside.szTrue;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  return sqlite3GlobalConfig.m.xSize(p);
 }
 SQLITE_API sqlite3_uint64 sqlite3_msize(void *p){
   assert( sqlite3MemdebugNoType(p, (u8)~MEMTYPE_HEAP) );
@@ -26927,15 +27543,27 @@
       measureAllocationSize(db, p);
       return;
     }
-    if( isLookaside(db, p) ){
-      LookasideSlot *pBuf = (LookasideSlot*)p;
+    if( ((uptr)p)<(uptr)(db->lookaside.pEnd) ){
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+      if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)(db->lookaside.pMiddle) ){
+        LookasideSlot *pBuf = (LookasideSlot*)p;
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
-      /* Trash all content in the buffer being freed */
-      memset(p, 0xaa, db->lookaside.sz);
-#endif
-      pBuf->pNext = db->lookaside.pFree;
-      db->lookaside.pFree = pBuf;
-      return;
+        memset(p, 0xaa, LOOKASIDE_SMALL);  /* Trash freed content */
+#endif
+        pBuf->pNext = db->lookaside.pSmallFree;
+        db->lookaside.pSmallFree = pBuf;
+        return;
+      }
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE */
+      if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)(db->lookaside.pStart) ){
+        LookasideSlot *pBuf = (LookasideSlot*)p;
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+        memset(p, 0xaa, db->lookaside.szTrue);  /* Trash freed content */
+#endif
+        pBuf->pNext = db->lookaside.pFree;
+        db->lookaside.pFree = pBuf;
+        return;
+      }
     }
   }
   assert( sqlite3MemdebugHasType(p, (MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE|MEMTYPE_HEAP)) );
@@ -27091,23 +27719,37 @@
   assert( db!=0 );
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
   assert( db->pnBytesFreed==0 );
-  if( db->lookaside.bDisable==0 ){
-    assert( db->mallocFailed==0 );
-    if( n>db->lookaside.sz ){
-      db->lookaside.anStat[1]++;
-    }else if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pFree)!=0 ){
-      db->lookaside.pFree = pBuf->pNext;
+  if( n>db->lookaside.sz ){
+    if( !db->lookaside.bDisable ){
+      db->lookaside.anStat[1]++;      
+    }else if( db->mallocFailed ){
+      return 0;
+    }
+    return dbMallocRawFinish(db, n);
+  }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+  if( n<=LOOKASIDE_SMALL ){
+    if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pSmallFree)!=0 ){
+      db->lookaside.pSmallFree = pBuf->pNext;
       db->lookaside.anStat[0]++;
       return (void*)pBuf;
-    }else if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pInit)!=0 ){
-      db->lookaside.pInit = pBuf->pNext;
+    }else if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pSmallInit)!=0 ){
+      db->lookaside.pSmallInit = pBuf->pNext;
       db->lookaside.anStat[0]++;
       return (void*)pBuf;
-    }else{
-      db->lookaside.anStat[2]++;
-    }
-  }else if( db->mallocFailed ){
-    return 0;
+    }
+  }
+#endif
+  if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pFree)!=0 ){
+    db->lookaside.pFree = pBuf->pNext;
+    db->lookaside.anStat[0]++;
+    return (void*)pBuf;
+  }else if( (pBuf = db->lookaside.pInit)!=0 ){
+    db->lookaside.pInit = pBuf->pNext;
+    db->lookaside.anStat[0]++;
+    return (void*)pBuf;
+  }else{
+    db->lookaside.anStat[2]++;
   }
 #else
   assert( db!=0 );
@@ -27131,7 +27773,16 @@
   assert( db!=0 );
   if( p==0 ) return sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, n);
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
-  if( isLookaside(db,p) && n<=db->lookaside.sz ) return p;
+  if( ((uptr)p)<(uptr)db->lookaside.pEnd ){
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TWOSIZE_LOOKASIDE
+    if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)db->lookaside.pMiddle ){
+      if( n<=LOOKASIDE_SMALL ) return p;
+    }else
+#endif
+    if( ((uptr)p)>=(uptr)db->lookaside.pStart ){
+      if( n<=db->lookaside.szTrue ) return p;
+    }
+  }
   return dbReallocFinish(db, p, n);
 }
 static SQLITE_NOINLINE void *dbReallocFinish(sqlite3 *db, void *p, u64 n){
@@ -27142,7 +27793,7 @@
     if( isLookaside(db, p) ){
       pNew = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, n);
       if( pNew ){
-        memcpy(pNew, p, db->lookaside.sz);
+        memcpy(pNew, p, lookasideMallocSize(db, p));
         sqlite3DbFree(db, p);
       }
     }else{
@@ -27241,7 +27892,7 @@
     if( db->nVdbeExec>0 ){
       db->u1.isInterrupted = 1;
     }
-    db->lookaside.bDisable++;
+    DisableLookaside;
     if( db->pParse ){
       db->pParse->rc = SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
     }
@@ -27260,7 +27911,7 @@
     db->mallocFailed = 0;
     db->u1.isInterrupted = 0;
     assert( db->lookaside.bDisable>0 );
-    db->lookaside.bDisable--;
+    EnableLookaside;
   }
 }
 
@@ -28668,7 +29319,7 @@
     va_start(ap, zFormat);
     sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
     va_end(ap);
-    assert( acc.nChar>0 );
+    assert( acc.nChar>0 || acc.accError );
     sqlite3_str_append(&acc, "\n", 1);
   }
   sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
@@ -28708,7 +29359,7 @@
         char cSep = '(';
         int j;
         for(j=0; j<pCte->pCols->nExpr; j++){
-          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zEName);
           cSep = ',';
         }
         sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ")");
@@ -28733,7 +29384,7 @@
     StrAccum x;
     char zLine[100];
     sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
-    sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "{%d,*}", pItem->iCursor);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "{%d:*}", pItem->iCursor);
     if( pItem->zDatabase ){
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " %s.%s", pItem->zDatabase, pItem->zName);
     }else if( pItem->zName ){
@@ -28749,6 +29400,9 @@
     if( pItem->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT ){
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " LEFT-JOIN");
     }
+    if( pItem->fg.fromDDL ){
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " DDL");
+    }
     sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
     sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<pSrc->nSrc-1); 
     if( pItem->pSelect ){
@@ -28778,13 +29432,17 @@
     sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 1);
   }
   do{
-    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView,
-      "SELECT%s%s (%u/%p) selFlags=0x%x nSelectRow=%d",
-      ((p->selFlags & SF_Distinct) ? " DISTINCT" : ""),
-      ((p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate) ? " agg_flag" : ""),
-      p->selId, p, p->selFlags,
-      (int)p->nSelectRow
-    );
+    if( p->selFlags & SF_WhereBegin ){
+      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "sqlite3WhereBegin()");
+    }else{
+      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView,
+        "SELECT%s%s (%u/%p) selFlags=0x%x nSelectRow=%d",
+        ((p->selFlags & SF_Distinct) ? " DISTINCT" : ""),
+        ((p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate) ? " agg_flag" : ""),
+        p->selId, p, p->selFlags,
+        (int)p->nSelectRow
+      );
+    }
     if( cnt++ ) sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
     if( p->pPrior ){
       n = 1000;
@@ -28801,7 +29459,10 @@
       if( p->pWinDefn ) n++;
 #endif
     }
-    sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pEList, (n--)>0, "result-set");
+    if( p->pEList ){
+      sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pEList, n>0, "result-set");
+    }
+    n--;
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
     if( p->pWin ){
       Window *pX;
@@ -28997,13 +29658,18 @@
     sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
     return;
   }
-  if( pExpr->flags ){
+  if( pExpr->flags || pExpr->affExpr ){
+    StrAccum x;
+    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zFlgs, sizeof(zFlgs), 0);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " fg.af=%x.%c",
+      pExpr->flags, pExpr->affExpr ? pExpr->affExpr : 'n');
     if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
-      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zFlgs),zFlgs,"  flags=0x%x iRJT=%d",
-                       pExpr->flags, pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
-    }else{
-      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zFlgs),zFlgs,"  flags=0x%x",pExpr->flags);
-    }
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " iRJT=%d", pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
+    }
+    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromDDL) ){
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " DDL");
+    }
+    sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
   }else{
     zFlgs[0] = 0;
   }
@@ -29016,10 +29682,18 @@
     case TK_COLUMN: {
       if( pExpr->iTable<0 ){
         /* This only happens when coding check constraints */
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "COLUMN(%d)%s", pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);
-      }else{
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "{%d:%d}%s",
-                             pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);
+        char zOp2[16];
+        if( pExpr->op2 ){
+          sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zOp2),zOp2," op2=0x%02x",pExpr->op2);
+        }else{
+          zOp2[0] = 0;
+        }
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "COLUMN(%d)%s%s",
+                                    pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs, zOp2);
+      }else{
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "{%d:%d} pTab=%p%s",
+                        pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn,
+                        pExpr->y.pTab, zFlgs);
       }
       if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FixedCol) ){
         sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
@@ -29129,7 +29803,14 @@
     }
 
     case TK_COLLATE: {
-      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "COLLATE %Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
+      /* COLLATE operators without the EP_Collate flag are intended to
+      ** emulate collation associated with a table column.  These show
+      ** up in the treeview output as "SOFT-COLLATE".  Explicit COLLATE
+      ** operators that appear in the original SQL always have the
+      ** EP_Collate bit set and appear in treeview output as just "COLLATE" */
+      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%sCOLLATE %Q%s",
+        !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Collate) ? "SOFT-" : "",
+        pExpr->u.zToken, zFlgs);
       sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
       break;
     }
@@ -29144,16 +29825,27 @@
       }else{
         pFarg = pExpr->x.pList;
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
-        pWin = pExpr->y.pWin;
+        pWin = ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ? pExpr->y.pWin : 0;
 #else
         pWin = 0;
 #endif 
       }
       if( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION ){
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "AGG_FUNCTION%d %Q",
-                             pExpr->op2, pExpr->u.zToken);
-      }else{
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FUNCTION %Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "AGG_FUNCTION%d %Q%s",
+                             pExpr->op2, pExpr->u.zToken, zFlgs);
+      }else if( pExpr->op2!=0 ){
+        const char *zOp2;
+        char zBuf[8];
+        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf),zBuf,"0x%02x",pExpr->op2);
+        zOp2 = zBuf;
+        if( pExpr->op2==NC_IsCheck ) zOp2 = "NC_IsCheck";
+        if( pExpr->op2==NC_IdxExpr ) zOp2 = "NC_IdxExpr";
+        if( pExpr->op2==NC_PartIdx ) zOp2 = "NC_PartIdx";
+        if( pExpr->op2==NC_GenCol ) zOp2 = "NC_GenCol";
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FUNCTION %Q%s op2=%s",
+                            pExpr->u.zToken, zFlgs, zOp2);
+      }else{
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FUNCTION %Q%s", pExpr->u.zToken, zFlgs);
       }
       if( pFarg ){
         sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, pFarg, pWin!=0, 0);
@@ -29230,7 +29922,7 @@
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
     case TK_RAISE: {
       const char *zType = "unk";
-      switch( pExpr->affinity ){
+      switch( pExpr->affExpr ){
         case OE_Rollback:   zType = "rollback";  break;
         case OE_Abort:      zType = "abort";     break;
         case OE_Fail:       zType = "fail";      break;
@@ -29247,7 +29939,9 @@
       break;
     }
     case TK_VECTOR: {
-      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
+      char *z = sqlite3_mprintf("VECTOR%s",zFlgs);
+      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, z);
+      sqlite3_free(z);
       break;
     }
     case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
@@ -29271,7 +29965,7 @@
     sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
   }else if( zUniOp ){
     sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zUniOp, zFlgs);
-    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
+   sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
   }
   sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
 }
@@ -29293,8 +29987,9 @@
     sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s", zLabel);
     for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
       int j = pList->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol;
-      char *zName = pList->a[i].zName;
+      char *zName = pList->a[i].zEName;
       int moreToFollow = i<pList->nExpr - 1;
+      if( pList->a[i].eEName!=ENAME_NAME ) zName = 0;
       if( j || zName ){
         sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, moreToFollow);
         moreToFollow = 0;
@@ -29961,9 +30656,11 @@
 
 #if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
   {
-    char zBuf[100];
-    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
-    fprintf(stderr, "INPUT:  %s\n", zBuf);
+    StrAccum acc;
+    char zBuf[1000];
+    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);  
+    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, &acc);
+    fprintf(stderr, "INPUT:  %s\n", sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
   }
 #endif
 
@@ -30071,9 +30768,11 @@
 translate_out:
 #if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
   {
-    char zBuf[100];
-    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
-    fprintf(stderr, "OUTPUT: %s\n", zBuf);
+    StrAccum acc;
+    char zBuf[1000];
+    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);  
+    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, &acc);
+    fprintf(stderr, "OUTPUT: %s\n", sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
   }
 #endif
   return SQLITE_OK;
@@ -30298,7 +30997,9 @@
 */
 /* #include "sqliteInt.h" */
 /* #include <stdarg.h> */
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
 #include <math.h>
+#endif
 
 /*
 ** Routine needed to support the testcase() macro.
@@ -30473,6 +31174,7 @@
     sqlite3DbFree(db, pParse->zErrMsg);
     pParse->zErrMsg = zMsg;
     pParse->rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
+    pParse->pWith = 0;
   }
 }
 
@@ -30663,10 +31365,13 @@
 ** returns FALSE but it still converts the prefix and writes the result
 ** into *pResult.
 */
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4756)
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double *pResult, int length, u8 enc){
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
   int incr;
-  const char *zEnd = z + length;
+  const char *zEnd;
   /* sign * significand * (10 ^ (esign * exponent)) */
   int sign = 1;    /* sign of significand */
   i64 s = 0;       /* significand */
@@ -30680,12 +31385,15 @@
 
   assert( enc==SQLITE_UTF8 || enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE || enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );
   *pResult = 0.0;   /* Default return value, in case of an error */
+  if( length==0 ) return 0;
 
   if( enc==SQLITE_UTF8 ){
     incr = 1;
+    zEnd = z + length;
   }else{
     int i;
     incr = 2;
+    length &= ~1;
     assert( SQLITE_UTF16LE==2 && SQLITE_UTF16BE==3 );
     testcase( enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE );
     testcase( enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );
@@ -30850,6 +31558,9 @@
   return !sqlite3Atoi64(z, pResult, length, enc);
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */
 }
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#pragma warning(default : 4756)
+#endif
 
 /*
 ** Compare the 19-character string zNum against the text representation
@@ -31779,7 +32490,7 @@
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */
 
 #if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS) || \
-    defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4) || \
+    defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4) || \
     defined(SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS)
 /*
 ** Convert a LogEst into an integer.
@@ -31797,7 +32508,7 @@
     defined(SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS)
   if( x>60 ) return (u64)LARGEST_INT64;
 #else
-  /* If only SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 is on, then the largest input
+  /* If only SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 is on, then the largest input
   ** possible to this routine is 310, resulting in a maximum x of 31 */
   assert( x<=60 );
 #endif
@@ -32220,30 +32931,30 @@
     /*  23 */ "SeekLE"           OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
     /*  24 */ "SeekGE"           OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
     /*  25 */ "SeekGT"           OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  26 */ "IfNoHope"         OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  27 */ "NoConflict"       OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  28 */ "NotFound"         OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  29 */ "Found"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  30 */ "SeekRowid"        OpHelp("intkey=r[P3]"),
-    /*  31 */ "NotExists"        OpHelp("intkey=r[P3]"),
-    /*  32 */ "Last"             OpHelp(""),
-    /*  33 */ "IfSmaller"        OpHelp(""),
-    /*  34 */ "SorterSort"       OpHelp(""),
-    /*  35 */ "Sort"             OpHelp(""),
-    /*  36 */ "Rewind"           OpHelp(""),
-    /*  37 */ "IdxLE"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  38 */ "IdxGT"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  39 */ "IdxLT"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  40 */ "IdxGE"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
-    /*  41 */ "RowSetRead"       OpHelp("r[P3]=rowset(P1)"),
-    /*  42 */ "RowSetTest"       OpHelp("if r[P3] in rowset(P1) goto P2"),
+    /*  26 */ "IfNotOpen"        OpHelp("if( !csr[P1] ) goto P2"),
+    /*  27 */ "IfNoHope"         OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  28 */ "NoConflict"       OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  29 */ "NotFound"         OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  30 */ "Found"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  31 */ "SeekRowid"        OpHelp("intkey=r[P3]"),
+    /*  32 */ "NotExists"        OpHelp("intkey=r[P3]"),
+    /*  33 */ "Last"             OpHelp(""),
+    /*  34 */ "IfSmaller"        OpHelp(""),
+    /*  35 */ "SorterSort"       OpHelp(""),
+    /*  36 */ "Sort"             OpHelp(""),
+    /*  37 */ "Rewind"           OpHelp(""),
+    /*  38 */ "IdxLE"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  39 */ "IdxGT"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  40 */ "IdxLT"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  41 */ "IdxGE"            OpHelp("key=r[P3@P4]"),
+    /*  42 */ "RowSetRead"       OpHelp("r[P3]=rowset(P1)"),
     /*  43 */ "Or"               OpHelp("r[P3]=(r[P1] || r[P2])"),
     /*  44 */ "And"              OpHelp("r[P3]=(r[P1] && r[P2])"),
-    /*  45 */ "Program"          OpHelp(""),
-    /*  46 */ "FkIfZero"         OpHelp("if fkctr[P1]==0 goto P2"),
-    /*  47 */ "IfPos"            OpHelp("if r[P1]>0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2"),
-    /*  48 */ "IfNotZero"        OpHelp("if r[P1]!=0 then r[P1]--, goto P2"),
-    /*  49 */ "DecrJumpZero"     OpHelp("if (--r[P1])==0 goto P2"),
+    /*  45 */ "RowSetTest"       OpHelp("if r[P3] in rowset(P1) goto P2"),
+    /*  46 */ "Program"          OpHelp(""),
+    /*  47 */ "FkIfZero"         OpHelp("if fkctr[P1]==0 goto P2"),
+    /*  48 */ "IfPos"            OpHelp("if r[P1]>0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2"),
+    /*  49 */ "IfNotZero"        OpHelp("if r[P1]!=0 then r[P1]--, goto P2"),
     /*  50 */ "IsNull"           OpHelp("if r[P1]==NULL goto P2"),
     /*  51 */ "NotNull"          OpHelp("if r[P1]!=NULL goto P2"),
     /*  52 */ "Ne"               OpHelp("IF r[P3]!=r[P1]"),
@@ -32253,83 +32964,83 @@
     /*  56 */ "Lt"               OpHelp("IF r[P3]<r[P1]"),
     /*  57 */ "Ge"               OpHelp("IF r[P3]>=r[P1]"),
     /*  58 */ "ElseNotEq"        OpHelp(""),
-    /*  59 */ "IncrVacuum"       OpHelp(""),
-    /*  60 */ "VNext"            OpHelp(""),
-    /*  61 */ "Init"             OpHelp("Start at P2"),
-    /*  62 */ "PureFunc0"        OpHelp(""),
-    /*  63 */ "Function0"        OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
-    /*  64 */ "PureFunc"         OpHelp(""),
-    /*  65 */ "Function"         OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
-    /*  66 */ "Return"           OpHelp(""),
-    /*  67 */ "EndCoroutine"     OpHelp(""),
-    /*  68 */ "HaltIfNull"       OpHelp("if r[P3]=null halt"),
-    /*  69 */ "Halt"             OpHelp(""),
-    /*  70 */ "Integer"          OpHelp("r[P2]=P1"),
-    /*  71 */ "Int64"            OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
-    /*  72 */ "String"           OpHelp("r[P2]='P4' (len=P1)"),
-    /*  73 */ "Null"             OpHelp("r[P2..P3]=NULL"),
-    /*  74 */ "SoftNull"         OpHelp("r[P1]=NULL"),
-    /*  75 */ "Blob"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4 (len=P1)"),
-    /*  76 */ "Variable"         OpHelp("r[P2]=parameter(P1,P4)"),
-    /*  77 */ "Move"             OpHelp("r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]"),
-    /*  78 */ "Copy"             OpHelp("r[P2@P3+1]=r[P1@P3+1]"),
-    /*  79 */ "SCopy"            OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
-    /*  80 */ "IntCopy"          OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
-    /*  81 */ "ResultRow"        OpHelp("output=r[P1@P2]"),
-    /*  82 */ "CollSeq"          OpHelp(""),
-    /*  83 */ "AddImm"           OpHelp("r[P1]=r[P1]+P2"),
-    /*  84 */ "RealAffinity"     OpHelp(""),
-    /*  85 */ "Cast"             OpHelp("affinity(r[P1])"),
-    /*  86 */ "Permutation"      OpHelp(""),
-    /*  87 */ "Compare"          OpHelp("r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]"),
-    /*  88 */ "IsTrue"           OpHelp("r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4"),
-    /*  89 */ "Offset"           OpHelp("r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)"),
-    /*  90 */ "Column"           OpHelp("r[P3]=PX"),
-    /*  91 */ "Affinity"         OpHelp("affinity(r[P1@P2])"),
-    /*  92 */ "MakeRecord"       OpHelp("r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])"),
-    /*  93 */ "Count"            OpHelp("r[P2]=count()"),
-    /*  94 */ "ReadCookie"       OpHelp(""),
-    /*  95 */ "SetCookie"        OpHelp(""),
-    /*  96 */ "BitAnd"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]"),
-    /*  97 */ "BitOr"            OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]"),
-    /*  98 */ "ShiftLeft"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]"),
-    /*  99 */ "ShiftRight"       OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]"),
-    /* 100 */ "Add"              OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]"),
-    /* 101 */ "Subtract"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]"),
-    /* 102 */ "Multiply"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]"),
-    /* 103 */ "Divide"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]"),
-    /* 104 */ "Remainder"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]"),
-    /* 105 */ "Concat"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1]"),
-    /* 106 */ "ReopenIdx"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
-    /* 107 */ "BitNot"           OpHelp("r[P2]= ~r[P1]"),
-    /* 108 */ "OpenRead"         OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
-    /* 109 */ "OpenWrite"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
-    /* 110 */ "String8"          OpHelp("r[P2]='P4'"),
-    /* 111 */ "OpenDup"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 112 */ "OpenAutoindex"    OpHelp("nColumn=P2"),
-    /* 113 */ "OpenEphemeral"    OpHelp("nColumn=P2"),
-    /* 114 */ "SorterOpen"       OpHelp(""),
-    /* 115 */ "SequenceTest"     OpHelp("if( cursor[P1].ctr++ ) pc = P2"),
-    /* 116 */ "OpenPseudo"       OpHelp("P3 columns in r[P2]"),
-    /* 117 */ "Close"            OpHelp(""),
-    /* 118 */ "ColumnsUsed"      OpHelp(""),
-    /* 119 */ "SeekHit"          OpHelp("seekHit=P2"),
-    /* 120 */ "Sequence"         OpHelp("r[P2]=cursor[P1].ctr++"),
-    /* 121 */ "NewRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
-    /* 122 */ "Insert"           OpHelp("intkey=r[P3] data=r[P2]"),
-    /* 123 */ "Delete"           OpHelp(""),
-    /* 124 */ "ResetCount"       OpHelp(""),
-    /* 125 */ "SorterCompare"    OpHelp("if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2"),
-    /* 126 */ "SorterData"       OpHelp("r[P2]=data"),
-    /* 127 */ "RowData"          OpHelp("r[P2]=data"),
-    /* 128 */ "Rowid"            OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
-    /* 129 */ "NullRow"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 130 */ "SeekEnd"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 131 */ "SorterInsert"     OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
-    /* 132 */ "IdxInsert"        OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
-    /* 133 */ "IdxDelete"        OpHelp("key=r[P2@P3]"),
-    /* 134 */ "DeferredSeek"     OpHelp("Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed"),
-    /* 135 */ "IdxRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
+    /*  59 */ "DecrJumpZero"     OpHelp("if (--r[P1])==0 goto P2"),
+    /*  60 */ "IncrVacuum"       OpHelp(""),
+    /*  61 */ "VNext"            OpHelp(""),
+    /*  62 */ "Init"             OpHelp("Start at P2"),
+    /*  63 */ "PureFunc"         OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
+    /*  64 */ "Function"         OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
+    /*  65 */ "Return"           OpHelp(""),
+    /*  66 */ "EndCoroutine"     OpHelp(""),
+    /*  67 */ "HaltIfNull"       OpHelp("if r[P3]=null halt"),
+    /*  68 */ "Halt"             OpHelp(""),
+    /*  69 */ "Integer"          OpHelp("r[P2]=P1"),
+    /*  70 */ "Int64"            OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
+    /*  71 */ "String"           OpHelp("r[P2]='P4' (len=P1)"),
+    /*  72 */ "Null"             OpHelp("r[P2..P3]=NULL"),
+    /*  73 */ "SoftNull"         OpHelp("r[P1]=NULL"),
+    /*  74 */ "Blob"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4 (len=P1)"),
+    /*  75 */ "Variable"         OpHelp("r[P2]=parameter(P1,P4)"),
+    /*  76 */ "Move"             OpHelp("r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]"),
+    /*  77 */ "Copy"             OpHelp("r[P2@P3+1]=r[P1@P3+1]"),
+    /*  78 */ "SCopy"            OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
+    /*  79 */ "IntCopy"          OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
+    /*  80 */ "ResultRow"        OpHelp("output=r[P1@P2]"),
+    /*  81 */ "CollSeq"          OpHelp(""),
+    /*  82 */ "AddImm"           OpHelp("r[P1]=r[P1]+P2"),
+    /*  83 */ "RealAffinity"     OpHelp(""),
+    /*  84 */ "Cast"             OpHelp("affinity(r[P1])"),
+    /*  85 */ "Permutation"      OpHelp(""),
+    /*  86 */ "Compare"          OpHelp("r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]"),
+    /*  87 */ "IsTrue"           OpHelp("r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4"),
+    /*  88 */ "Offset"           OpHelp("r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)"),
+    /*  89 */ "Column"           OpHelp("r[P3]=PX"),
+    /*  90 */ "Affinity"         OpHelp("affinity(r[P1@P2])"),
+    /*  91 */ "MakeRecord"       OpHelp("r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])"),
+    /*  92 */ "Count"            OpHelp("r[P2]=count()"),
+    /*  93 */ "ReadCookie"       OpHelp(""),
+    /*  94 */ "SetCookie"        OpHelp(""),
+    /*  95 */ "ReopenIdx"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
+    /*  96 */ "OpenRead"         OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
+    /*  97 */ "OpenWrite"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
+    /*  98 */ "OpenDup"          OpHelp(""),
+    /*  99 */ "OpenAutoindex"    OpHelp("nColumn=P2"),
+    /* 100 */ "OpenEphemeral"    OpHelp("nColumn=P2"),
+    /* 101 */ "BitAnd"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]"),
+    /* 102 */ "BitOr"            OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]"),
+    /* 103 */ "ShiftLeft"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]"),
+    /* 104 */ "ShiftRight"       OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]"),
+    /* 105 */ "Add"              OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]"),
+    /* 106 */ "Subtract"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]"),
+    /* 107 */ "Multiply"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]"),
+    /* 108 */ "Divide"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]"),
+    /* 109 */ "Remainder"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]"),
+    /* 110 */ "Concat"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1]"),
+    /* 111 */ "SorterOpen"       OpHelp(""),
+    /* 112 */ "BitNot"           OpHelp("r[P2]= ~r[P1]"),
+    /* 113 */ "SequenceTest"     OpHelp("if( cursor[P1].ctr++ ) pc = P2"),
+    /* 114 */ "OpenPseudo"       OpHelp("P3 columns in r[P2]"),
+    /* 115 */ "String8"          OpHelp("r[P2]='P4'"),
+    /* 116 */ "Close"            OpHelp(""),
+    /* 117 */ "ColumnsUsed"      OpHelp(""),
+    /* 118 */ "SeekHit"          OpHelp("seekHit=P2"),
+    /* 119 */ "Sequence"         OpHelp("r[P2]=cursor[P1].ctr++"),
+    /* 120 */ "NewRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
+    /* 121 */ "Insert"           OpHelp("intkey=r[P3] data=r[P2]"),
+    /* 122 */ "Delete"           OpHelp(""),
+    /* 123 */ "ResetCount"       OpHelp(""),
+    /* 124 */ "SorterCompare"    OpHelp("if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2"),
+    /* 125 */ "SorterData"       OpHelp("r[P2]=data"),
+    /* 126 */ "RowData"          OpHelp("r[P2]=data"),
+    /* 127 */ "Rowid"            OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
+    /* 128 */ "NullRow"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 129 */ "SeekEnd"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 130 */ "SorterInsert"     OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
+    /* 131 */ "IdxInsert"        OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
+    /* 132 */ "IdxDelete"        OpHelp("key=r[P2@P3]"),
+    /* 133 */ "DeferredSeek"     OpHelp("Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed"),
+    /* 134 */ "IdxRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
+    /* 135 */ "FinishSeek"       OpHelp(""),
     /* 136 */ "Destroy"          OpHelp(""),
     /* 137 */ "Clear"            OpHelp(""),
     /* 138 */ "ResetSorter"      OpHelp(""),
@@ -32339,12 +33050,12 @@
     /* 142 */ "LoadAnalysis"     OpHelp(""),
     /* 143 */ "DropTable"        OpHelp(""),
     /* 144 */ "DropIndex"        OpHelp(""),
-    /* 145 */ "Real"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
-    /* 146 */ "DropTrigger"      OpHelp(""),
-    /* 147 */ "IntegrityCk"      OpHelp(""),
-    /* 148 */ "RowSetAdd"        OpHelp("rowset(P1)=r[P2]"),
-    /* 149 */ "Param"            OpHelp(""),
-    /* 150 */ "FkCounter"        OpHelp("fkctr[P1]+=P2"),
+    /* 145 */ "DropTrigger"      OpHelp(""),
+    /* 146 */ "IntegrityCk"      OpHelp(""),
+    /* 147 */ "RowSetAdd"        OpHelp("rowset(P1)=r[P2]"),
+    /* 148 */ "Param"            OpHelp(""),
+    /* 149 */ "FkCounter"        OpHelp("fkctr[P1]+=P2"),
+    /* 150 */ "Real"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
     /* 151 */ "MemMax"           OpHelp("r[P1]=max(r[P1],r[P2])"),
     /* 152 */ "OffsetLimit"      OpHelp("if r[P1]>0 then r[P2]=r[P1]+max(0,r[P3]) else r[P2]=(-1)"),
     /* 153 */ "AggInverse"       OpHelp("accum=r[P3] inverse(r[P2@P5])"),
@@ -32353,20 +33064,23 @@
     /* 156 */ "AggValue"         OpHelp("r[P3]=value N=P2"),
     /* 157 */ "AggFinal"         OpHelp("accum=r[P1] N=P2"),
     /* 158 */ "Expire"           OpHelp(""),
-    /* 159 */ "TableLock"        OpHelp("iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3"),
-    /* 160 */ "VBegin"           OpHelp(""),
-    /* 161 */ "VCreate"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 162 */ "VDestroy"         OpHelp(""),
-    /* 163 */ "VOpen"            OpHelp(""),
-    /* 164 */ "VColumn"          OpHelp("r[P3]=vcolumn(P2)"),
-    /* 165 */ "VRename"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 166 */ "Pagecount"        OpHelp(""),
-    /* 167 */ "MaxPgcnt"         OpHelp(""),
-    /* 168 */ "Trace"            OpHelp(""),
-    /* 169 */ "CursorHint"       OpHelp(""),
-    /* 170 */ "Noop"             OpHelp(""),
-    /* 171 */ "Explain"          OpHelp(""),
-    /* 172 */ "Abortable"        OpHelp(""),
+    /* 159 */ "CursorLock"       OpHelp(""),
+    /* 160 */ "CursorUnlock"     OpHelp(""),
+    /* 161 */ "TableLock"        OpHelp("iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3"),
+    /* 162 */ "VBegin"           OpHelp(""),
+    /* 163 */ "VCreate"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 164 */ "VDestroy"         OpHelp(""),
+    /* 165 */ "VOpen"            OpHelp(""),
+    /* 166 */ "VColumn"          OpHelp("r[P3]=vcolumn(P2)"),
+    /* 167 */ "VRename"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 168 */ "Pagecount"        OpHelp(""),
+    /* 169 */ "MaxPgcnt"         OpHelp(""),
+    /* 170 */ "Trace"            OpHelp(""),
+    /* 171 */ "CursorHint"       OpHelp(""),
+    /* 172 */ "ReleaseReg"       OpHelp("release r[P1@P2] mask P3"),
+    /* 173 */ "Noop"             OpHelp(""),
+    /* 174 */ "Explain"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 175 */ "Abortable"        OpHelp(""),
   };
   return azName[i];
 }
@@ -32481,13 +33195,29 @@
 # include <sys/param.h>
 #endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE */
 
-#if defined(__APPLE__) && ((__MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED > 1050) || \
-                           (__IPHONE_OS_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED > 2000))
-#  if (!defined(TARGET_OS_EMBEDDED) || (TARGET_OS_EMBEDDED==0)) \
-       && (!defined(TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR) || (TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR==0))
-#    define HAVE_GETHOSTUUID 1
-#  else
-#    warning "gethostuuid() is disabled."
+/*
+** Try to determine if gethostuuid() is available based on standard
+** macros.  This might sometimes compute the wrong value for some
+** obscure platforms.  For those cases, simply compile with one of
+** the following:
+**
+**    -DHAVE_GETHOSTUUID=0
+**    -DHAVE_GETHOSTUUID=1
+**
+** None if this matters except when building on Apple products with
+** -DSQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE.
+*/
+#ifndef HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
+# define HAVE_GETHOSTUUID 0
+# if defined(__APPLE__) && ((__MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED > 1050) || \
+                            (__IPHONE_OS_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED > 2000))
+#    if (!defined(TARGET_OS_EMBEDDED) || (TARGET_OS_EMBEDDED==0)) \
+         && (!defined(TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR) || (TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR==0))
+#      undef HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
+#      define HAVE_GETHOSTUUID 1
+#    else
+#      warning "gethostuuid() is disabled."
+#    endif
 #  endif
 #endif
 
@@ -32714,7 +33444,7 @@
 ******************************************************************************
 **
 ** This file contains inline asm code for retrieving "high-performance"
-** counters for x86 class CPUs.
+** counters for x86 and x86_64 class CPUs.
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_HWTIME_H
 #define SQLITE_HWTIME_H
@@ -32725,8 +33455,9 @@
 ** processor and returns that value.  This can be used for high-res
 ** profiling.
 */
-#if (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
-      (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
+#if !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && \
+    (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
+    (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
 
   #if defined(__GNUC__)
 
@@ -32747,7 +33478,7 @@
 
   #endif
 
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long val;
@@ -32755,7 +33486,7 @@
       return val;
   }
  
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long long retval;
@@ -32772,14 +33503,13 @@
 
 #else
 
-  #error Need implementation of sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform.
-
   /*
-  ** To compile without implementing sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform,
-  ** you can remove the above #error and use the following
-  ** stub function.  You will lose timing support for many
-  ** of the debugging and testing utilities, but it should at
-  ** least compile and run.
+  ** asm() is needed for hardware timing support.  Without asm(),
+  ** disable the sqlite3Hwtime() routine.
+  **
+  ** sqlite3Hwtime() is only used for some obscure debugging
+  ** and analysis configurations, not in any deliverable, so this
+  ** should not be a great loss.
   */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){ return ((sqlite_uint64)0); }
 
@@ -33095,13 +33825,14 @@
 #if defined(__linux__) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE)
 # ifdef __ANDROID__
   { "ioctl", (sqlite3_syscall_ptr)(int(*)(int, int, ...))ioctl, 0 },
+#define osIoctl ((int(*)(int,int,...))aSyscall[28].pCurrent)
 # else
   { "ioctl",         (sqlite3_syscall_ptr)ioctl,          0 },
+#define osIoctl ((int(*)(int,unsigned long,...))aSyscall[28].pCurrent)
 # endif
 #else
   { "ioctl",         (sqlite3_syscall_ptr)0,              0 },
 #endif
-#define osIoctl ((int(*)(int,int,...))aSyscall[28].pCurrent)
 
 }; /* End of the overrideable system calls */
 
@@ -36242,7 +36973,7 @@
     if( zDirname[0]!='/' ) zDirname[0] = '.';
     zDirname[1] = 0;
   }
-  fd = robust_open(zDirname, O_RDONLY|O_BINARY, 0);
+  fd = robust_open(zDirname, O_RDONLY|O_BINARY|O_NOFOLLOW, 0);
   if( fd>=0 ){
     OSTRACE(("OPENDIR %-3d %s\n", fd, zDirname));
   }
@@ -37133,10 +37864,12 @@
 
     if( pInode->bProcessLock==0 ){
       if( 0==sqlite3_uri_boolean(pDbFd->zPath, "readonly_shm", 0) ){
-        pShmNode->hShm = robust_open(zShm, O_RDWR|O_CREAT,(sStat.st_mode&0777));
+        pShmNode->hShm = robust_open(zShm, O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_NOFOLLOW,
+                                     (sStat.st_mode&0777));
       }
       if( pShmNode->hShm<0 ){
-        pShmNode->hShm = robust_open(zShm, O_RDONLY, (sStat.st_mode&0777));
+        pShmNode->hShm = robust_open(zShm, O_RDONLY|O_NOFOLLOW,
+                                     (sStat.st_mode&0777));
         if( pShmNode->hShm<0 ){
           rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT, "open", zShm);
           goto shm_open_err;
@@ -38343,6 +39076,7 @@
       UnixUnusedFd **pp;
       assert( sqlite3_mutex_notheld(pInode->pLockMutex) );
       sqlite3_mutex_enter(pInode->pLockMutex);
+      flags &= (SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE);
       for(pp=&pInode->pUnused; *pp && (*pp)->flags!=flags; pp=&((*pp)->pNext));
       pUnused = *pp;
       if( pUnused ){
@@ -38396,7 +39130,7 @@
 ** If the SQLITE_ENABLE_8_3_NAMES option is enabled, then the
 ** original filename is unavailable.  But 8_3_NAMES is only used for
 ** FAT filesystems and permissions do not matter there, so just use
-** the default permissions.
+** the default permissions.  In 8_3_NAMES mode, leave *pMode set to zero.
 */
 static int findCreateFileMode(
   const char *zPath,              /* Path of file (possibly) being created */
@@ -38485,7 +39219,7 @@
   unixFile *p = (unixFile *)pFile;
   int fd = -1;                   /* File descriptor returned by open() */
   int openFlags = 0;             /* Flags to pass to open() */
-  int eType = flags&0xFFFFFF00;  /* Type of file to open */
+  int eType = flags&0x0FFF00;  /* Type of file to open */
   int noLock;                    /* True to omit locking primitives */
   int rc = SQLITE_OK;            /* Function Return Code */
   int ctrlFlags = 0;             /* UNIXFILE_* flags */
@@ -38595,7 +39329,7 @@
   if( isReadWrite ) openFlags |= O_RDWR;
   if( isCreate )    openFlags |= O_CREAT;
   if( isExclusive ) openFlags |= (O_EXCL|O_NOFOLLOW);
-  openFlags |= (O_LARGEFILE|O_BINARY);
+  openFlags |= (O_LARGEFILE|O_BINARY|O_NOFOLLOW);
 
   if( fd<0 ){
     mode_t openMode;              /* Permissions to create file with */
@@ -38631,11 +39365,19 @@
       goto open_finished;
     }
 
-    /* If this process is running as root and if creating a new rollback
-    ** journal or WAL file, set the ownership of the journal or WAL to be
-    ** the same as the original database.
-    */
-    if( flags & (SQLITE_OPEN_WAL|SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL) ){
+    /* The owner of the rollback journal or WAL file should always be the
+    ** same as the owner of the database file.  Try to ensure that this is
+    ** the case.  The chown() system call will be a no-op if the current
+    ** process lacks root privileges, be we should at least try.  Without
+    ** this step, if a root process opens a database file, it can leave
+    ** behinds a journal/WAL that is owned by root and hence make the
+    ** database inaccessible to unprivileged processes.
+    **
+    ** If openMode==0, then that means uid and gid are not set correctly
+    ** (probably because SQLite is configured to use 8+3 filename mode) and
+    ** in that case we do not want to attempt the chown().
+    */
+    if( openMode && (flags & (SQLITE_OPEN_WAL|SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL))!=0 ){
       robustFchown(fd, uid, gid);
     }
   }
@@ -38646,7 +39388,8 @@
 
   if( p->pPreallocatedUnused ){
     p->pPreallocatedUnused->fd = fd;
-    p->pPreallocatedUnused->flags = flags;
+    p->pPreallocatedUnused->flags = 
+                          flags & (SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE);
   }
 
   if( isDelete ){
@@ -38804,7 +39547,8 @@
 
   if( flags==SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS ){
     struct stat buf;
-    *pResOut = (0==osStat(zPath, &buf) && buf.st_size>0);
+    *pResOut = 0==osStat(zPath, &buf) &&
+                (!S_ISREG(buf.st_mode) || buf.st_size>0);
   }else{
     *pResOut = osAccess(zPath, W_OK|R_OK)==0;
   }
@@ -38858,7 +39602,7 @@
 #else
   int rc = SQLITE_OK;
   int nByte;
-  int nLink = 1;                /* Number of symbolic links followed so far */
+  int nLink = 0;                /* Number of symbolic links followed so far */
   const char *zIn = zPath;      /* Input path for each iteration of loop */
   char *zDel = 0;
 
@@ -38887,10 +39631,11 @@
     }
 
     if( bLink ){
+      nLink++;
       if( zDel==0 ){
         zDel = sqlite3_malloc(nOut);
         if( zDel==0 ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
-      }else if( ++nLink>SQLITE_MAX_SYMLINKS ){
+      }else if( nLink>=SQLITE_MAX_SYMLINKS ){
         rc = SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT;
       }
 
@@ -38926,6 +39671,7 @@
   }while( rc==SQLITE_OK );
 
   sqlite3_free(zDel);
+  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && nLink ) rc = SQLITE_OK_SYMLINK;
   return rc;
 #endif   /* HAVE_READLINK && HAVE_LSTAT */
 }
@@ -39411,7 +40157,7 @@
   int fd = -1;
   unixFile *pNew;
   int rc = SQLITE_OK;
-  int openFlags = O_RDWR | O_CREAT;
+  int openFlags = O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_NOFOLLOW;
   sqlite3_vfs dummyVfs;
   int terrno = 0;
   UnixUnusedFd *pUnused = NULL;
@@ -39441,7 +40187,7 @@
     }
   }
   if( fd<0 ){
-    openFlags = O_RDONLY;
+    openFlags = O_RDONLY | O_NOFOLLOW;
     fd = robust_open(path, openFlags, 0);
     terrno = errno;
   }
@@ -39492,7 +40238,7 @@
 
 #define PROXY_HOSTIDLEN    16  /* conch file host id length */
 
-#ifdef HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
+#if HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
 /* Not always defined in the headers as it ought to be */
 extern int gethostuuid(uuid_t id, const struct timespec *wait);
 #endif
@@ -39503,7 +40249,7 @@
 static int proxyGetHostID(unsigned char *pHostID, int *pError){
   assert(PROXY_HOSTIDLEN == sizeof(uuid_t));
   memset(pHostID, 0, PROXY_HOSTIDLEN);
-#ifdef HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
+#if HAVE_GETHOSTUUID
   {
     struct timespec timeout = {1, 0}; /* 1 sec timeout */
     if( gethostuuid(pHostID, &timeout) ){
@@ -39567,7 +40313,7 @@
     goto end_breaklock;
   }
   /* write it out to the temporary break file */
-  fd = robust_open(tPath, (O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL), 0);
+  fd = robust_open(tPath, (O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_NOFOLLOW), 0);
   if( fd<0 ){
     sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(errmsg), errmsg, "create failed (%d)", errno);
     goto end_breaklock;
@@ -40177,7 +40923,7 @@
       assert( 0 );  /* The call assures that only valid opcodes are sent */
     }
   }
-  /*NOTREACHED*/
+  /*NOTREACHED*/ assert(0);
   return SQLITE_ERROR;
 }
 
@@ -40525,7 +41271,7 @@
 ******************************************************************************
 **
 ** This file contains inline asm code for retrieving "high-performance"
-** counters for x86 class CPUs.
+** counters for x86 and x86_64 class CPUs.
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_HWTIME_H
 #define SQLITE_HWTIME_H
@@ -40536,8 +41282,9 @@
 ** processor and returns that value.  This can be used for high-res
 ** profiling.
 */
-#if (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
-      (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
+#if !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && \
+    (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
+    (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
 
   #if defined(__GNUC__)
 
@@ -40558,7 +41305,7 @@
 
   #endif
 
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long val;
@@ -40566,7 +41313,7 @@
       return val;
   }
  
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long long retval;
@@ -40583,14 +41330,13 @@
 
 #else
 
-  #error Need implementation of sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform.
-
   /*
-  ** To compile without implementing sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform,
-  ** you can remove the above #error and use the following
-  ** stub function.  You will lose timing support for many
-  ** of the debugging and testing utilities, but it should at
-  ** least compile and run.
+  ** asm() is needed for hardware timing support.  Without asm(),
+  ** disable the sqlite3Hwtime() routine.
+  **
+  ** sqlite3Hwtime() is only used for some obscure debugging
+  ** and analysis configurations, not in any deliverable, so this
+  ** should not be a great loss.
   */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){ return ((sqlite_uint64)0); }
 
@@ -44862,6 +45608,7 @@
     rc = winOpenSharedMemory(pDbFd);
     if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
     pShm = pDbFd->pShm;
+    assert( pShm!=0 );
   }
   pShmNode = pShm->pShmNode;
 
@@ -45164,6 +45911,7 @@
       }
     }
     if( pFd->mmapSize >= iOff+nAmt ){
+      assert( pFd->pMapRegion!=0 );
       *pp = &((u8 *)pFd->pMapRegion)[iOff];
       pFd->nFetchOut++;
     }
@@ -48085,6 +48833,7 @@
     ** built-in default page cache is used instead of the application defined
     ** page cache. */
     sqlite3PCacheSetDefault();
+    assert( sqlite3GlobalConfig.pcache2.xInit!=0 );
   }
   return sqlite3GlobalConfig.pcache2.xInit(sqlite3GlobalConfig.pcache2.pArg);
 }
@@ -49131,6 +49880,7 @@
 
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(pCache->pGroup->mutex) );
   if( pCache->pFree || (pCache->nPage==0 && pcache1InitBulk(pCache)) ){
+    assert( pCache->pFree!=0 );
     p = pCache->pFree;
     pCache->pFree = p->pNext;
     p->pNext = 0;
@@ -49154,13 +49904,15 @@
     }
 #else
     pPg = pcache1Alloc(pCache->szAlloc);
-    p = (PgHdr1 *)&((u8 *)pPg)[pCache->szPage];
 #endif
     if( benignMalloc ){ sqlite3EndBenignMalloc(); }
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT
     pcache1EnterMutex(pCache->pGroup);
 #endif
     if( pPg==0 ) return 0;
+#ifndef SQLITE_PCACHE_SEPARATE_HEADER
+    p = (PgHdr1 *)&((u8 *)pPg)[pCache->szPage];
+#endif
     p->page.pBuf = pPg;
     p->page.pExtra = &p[1];
     p->isBulkLocal = 0;
@@ -51815,6 +52567,7 @@
     }
     IOTRACE(("UNLOCK %p %d\n", pPager, eLock))
   }
+  pPager->changeCountDone = pPager->tempFile; /* ticket fb3b3024ea238d5c */
   return rc;
 }
 
@@ -52002,6 +52755,7 @@
     len = 0;
   }
   zMaster[len] = '\0';
+  zMaster[len+1] = '\0';
    
   return SQLITE_OK;
 }
@@ -52535,7 +53289,6 @@
     ** code is cleared and the cache reset in the block below.
     */
     assert( pPager->errCode || pPager->eState!=PAGER_ERROR );
-    pPager->changeCountDone = 0;
     pPager->eState = PAGER_OPEN;
   }
 
@@ -52799,7 +53552,6 @@
    && (!pagerUseWal(pPager) || sqlite3WalExclusiveMode(pPager->pWal, 0))
   ){
     rc2 = pagerUnlockDb(pPager, SHARED_LOCK);
-    pPager->changeCountDone = 0;
   }
   pPager->eState = PAGER_READER;
   pPager->setMaster = 0;
@@ -53238,15 +53990,16 @@
   rc = sqlite3OsFileSize(pMaster, &nMasterJournal);
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto delmaster_out;
   nMasterPtr = pVfs->mxPathname+1;
-  zMasterJournal = sqlite3Malloc(nMasterJournal + nMasterPtr + 1);
+  zMasterJournal = sqlite3Malloc(nMasterJournal + nMasterPtr + 2);
   if( !zMasterJournal ){
     rc = SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
     goto delmaster_out;
   }
-  zMasterPtr = &zMasterJournal[nMasterJournal+1];
+  zMasterPtr = &zMasterJournal[nMasterJournal+2];
   rc = sqlite3OsRead(pMaster, zMasterJournal, (int)nMasterJournal, 0);
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto delmaster_out;
   zMasterJournal[nMasterJournal] = 0;
+  zMasterJournal[nMasterJournal+1] = 0;
 
   zJournal = zMasterJournal;
   while( (zJournal-zMasterJournal)<nMasterJournal ){
@@ -55403,7 +56156,8 @@
   int pcacheSize = sqlite3PcacheSize();       /* Bytes to allocate for PCache */
   u32 szPageDflt = SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE;  /* Default page size */
   const char *zUri = 0;    /* URI args to copy */
-  int nUri = 0;            /* Number of bytes of URI args at *zUri */
+  int nUriByte = 1;        /* Number of bytes of URI args at *zUri */
+  int nUri = 0;            /* Number of URI parameters */
 
   /* Figure out how much space is required for each journal file-handle
   ** (there are two of them, the main journal and the sub-journal).  */
@@ -55437,14 +56191,24 @@
     }
     zPathname[0] = 0; /* Make sure initialized even if FullPathname() fails */
     rc = sqlite3OsFullPathname(pVfs, zFilename, nPathname, zPathname);
+    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
+      if( rc==SQLITE_OK_SYMLINK ){
+        if( vfsFlags & SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW ){
+          rc = SQLITE_CANTOPEN_SYMLINK;
+        }else{
+          rc = SQLITE_OK;
+        }
+      }
+    }
     nPathname = sqlite3Strlen30(zPathname);
     z = zUri = &zFilename[sqlite3Strlen30(zFilename)+1];
     while( *z ){
-      z += sqlite3Strlen30(z)+1;
-      z += sqlite3Strlen30(z)+1;
-    }
-    nUri = (int)(&z[1] - zUri);
-    assert( nUri>=0 );
+      z += strlen(z)+1;
+      z += strlen(z)+1;
+      nUri++;
+    }
+    nUriByte = (int)(&z[1] - zUri);
+    assert( nUriByte>=1 );
     if( rc==SQLITE_OK && nPathname+8>pVfs->mxPathname ){
       /* This branch is taken when the journal path required by
       ** the database being opened will be more than pVfs->mxPathname
@@ -55469,50 +56233,103 @@
   **     Database file handle            (pVfs->szOsFile bytes)
   **     Sub-journal file handle         (journalFileSize bytes)
   **     Main journal file handle        (journalFileSize bytes)
+  **     \0\0\0\0 database prefix        (4 bytes)
   **     Database file name              (nPathname+1 bytes)
-  **     Journal file name               (nPathname+8+1 bytes)
+  **     URI query parameters            (nUriByte bytes)
+  **     Journal filename                (nPathname+8+1 bytes)
+  **     WAL filename                    (nPathname+4+1 bytes)
+  **     \0\0\0 terminator               (3 bytes)
+  **
+  ** Some 3rd-party software, over which we have no control, depends on
+  ** the specific order of the filenames and the \0 separators between them
+  ** so that it can (for example) find the database filename given the WAL
+  ** filename without using the sqlite3_filename_database() API.  This is a
+  ** misuse of SQLite and a bug in the 3rd-party software, but the 3rd-party
+  ** software is in widespread use, so we try to avoid changing the filename
+  ** order and formatting if possible.  In particular, the details of the
+  ** filename format expected by 3rd-party software should be as follows:
+  **
+  **   - Main Database Path
+  **   - \0
+  **   - Multiple URI components consisting of:
+  **     - Key
+  **     - \0
+  **     - Value
+  **     - \0
+  **   - \0
+  **   - Journal Path
+  **   - \0
+  **   - WAL Path (zWALName)
+  **   - \0
   */
   pPtr = (u8 *)sqlite3MallocZero(
-    ROUND8(sizeof(*pPager)) +      /* Pager structure */
-    ROUND8(pcacheSize) +           /* PCache object */
-    ROUND8(pVfs->szOsFile) +       /* The main db file */
-    journalFileSize * 2 +          /* The two journal files */ 
-    nPathname + 1 + nUri +         /* zFilename */
-    nPathname + 8 + 2              /* zJournal */
+    ROUND8(sizeof(*pPager)) +            /* Pager structure */
+    ROUND8(pcacheSize) +                 /* PCache object */
+    ROUND8(pVfs->szOsFile) +             /* The main db file */
+    journalFileSize * 2 +                /* The two journal files */
+    4 +                                  /* Database prefix */
+    nPathname + 1 +                      /* database filename */
+    nUriByte +                           /* query parameters */
+    nPathname + 8 + 1 +                  /* Journal filename */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
-    + nPathname + 4 + 2            /* zWal */
-#endif
+    nPathname + 4 + 1 +                  /* WAL filename */
+#endif
+    3                                    /* Terminator */
   );
   assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(journalFileSize)) );
   if( !pPtr ){
     sqlite3DbFree(0, zPathname);
     return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
   }
-  pPager =              (Pager*)(pPtr);
-  pPager->pPCache =    (PCache*)(pPtr += ROUND8(sizeof(*pPager)));
-  pPager->fd =   (sqlite3_file*)(pPtr += ROUND8(pcacheSize));
-  pPager->sjfd = (sqlite3_file*)(pPtr += ROUND8(pVfs->szOsFile));
-  pPager->jfd =  (sqlite3_file*)(pPtr += journalFileSize);
-  pPager->zFilename =    (char*)(pPtr += journalFileSize);
+  pPager = (Pager*)pPtr;                  pPtr += ROUND8(sizeof(*pPager));
+  pPager->pPCache = (PCache*)pPtr;        pPtr += ROUND8(pcacheSize);
+  pPager->fd = (sqlite3_file*)pPtr;       pPtr += ROUND8(pVfs->szOsFile);
+  pPager->sjfd = (sqlite3_file*)pPtr;     pPtr += journalFileSize;
+  pPager->jfd =  (sqlite3_file*)pPtr;     pPtr += journalFileSize;
   assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pPager->jfd) );
 
-  /* Fill in the Pager.zFilename and Pager.zJournal buffers, if required. */
-  if( zPathname ){
-    assert( nPathname>0 );
-    pPager->zJournal =   (char*)(pPtr += nPathname + 1 + nUri);
-    memcpy(pPager->zFilename, zPathname, nPathname);
-    if( nUri ) memcpy(&pPager->zFilename[nPathname+1], zUri, nUri);
-    memcpy(pPager->zJournal, zPathname, nPathname);
-    memcpy(&pPager->zJournal[nPathname], "-journal\000", 8+2);
-    sqlite3FileSuffix3(pPager->zFilename, pPager->zJournal);
+  /* Fill in the Pager.zFilename and pPager.zQueryParam fields */
+                                          pPtr += 4;  /* Skip zero prefix */
+  pPager->zFilename = (char*)pPtr;
+  if( nPathname>0 ){
+    memcpy(pPtr, zPathname, nPathname);   pPtr += nPathname + 1;
+    if( zUri ){
+      memcpy(pPtr, zUri, nUriByte);       pPtr += nUriByte;
+    }else{
+                                          pPtr++;
+    }
+  }
+
+
+  /* Fill in Pager.zJournal */
+  if( nPathname>0 ){
+    pPager->zJournal = (char*)pPtr;
+    memcpy(pPtr, zPathname, nPathname);   pPtr += nPathname;
+    memcpy(pPtr, "-journal",8);           pPtr += 8 + 1;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_8_3_NAMES
+    sqlite3FileSuffix3(zFilename,pPager->zJournal);
+    pPtr = (u8*)(pPager->zJournal + sqlite3Strlen30(pPager->zJournal)+1);
+#endif
+  }else{
+    pPager->zJournal = 0;
+  }
+
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
-    pPager->zWal = &pPager->zJournal[nPathname+8+1];
-    memcpy(pPager->zWal, zPathname, nPathname);
-    memcpy(&pPager->zWal[nPathname], "-wal\000", 4+1);
-    sqlite3FileSuffix3(pPager->zFilename, pPager->zWal);
-#endif
-    sqlite3DbFree(0, zPathname);
-  }
+  /* Fill in Pager.zWal */
+  if( nPathname>0 ){
+    pPager->zWal = (char*)pPtr;
+    memcpy(pPtr, zPathname, nPathname);   pPtr += nPathname;
+    memcpy(pPtr, "-wal", 4);              pPtr += 4 + 1;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_8_3_NAMES
+    sqlite3FileSuffix3(zFilename, pPager->zWal);
+    pPtr = (u8*)(pPager->zWal + sqlite3Strlen30(pPager->zWal)+1);
+#endif
+  }else{
+    pPager->zWal = 0;
+  }
+#endif
+
+  if( nPathname ) sqlite3DbFree(0, zPathname);
   pPager->pVfs = pVfs;
   pPager->vfsFlags = vfsFlags;
 
@@ -55561,9 +56378,9 @@
         }
 #endif
       }
-      pPager->noLock = sqlite3_uri_boolean(zFilename, "nolock", 0);
+      pPager->noLock = sqlite3_uri_boolean(pPager->zFilename, "nolock", 0);
       if( (iDc & SQLITE_IOCAP_IMMUTABLE)!=0
-       || sqlite3_uri_boolean(zFilename, "immutable", 0) ){
+       || sqlite3_uri_boolean(pPager->zFilename, "immutable", 0) ){
           vfsFlags |= SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY;
           goto act_like_temp_file;
       }
@@ -57254,6 +58071,7 @@
   ** But if (due to a coding error elsewhere in the system) it does get
   ** called, just return the same error code without doing anything. */
   if( NEVER(pPager->errCode) ) return pPager->errCode;
+  pPager->iDataVersion++;
 
   assert( pPager->eState==PAGER_WRITER_LOCKED
        || pPager->eState==PAGER_WRITER_FINISHED
@@ -57282,7 +58100,6 @@
   }
 
   PAGERTRACE(("COMMIT %d\n", PAGERID(pPager)));
-  pPager->iDataVersion++;
   rc = pager_end_transaction(pPager, pPager->setMaster, 1);
   return pager_error(pPager, rc);
 }
@@ -57626,9 +58443,13 @@
 ** behavior.  But when the Btree needs to know the filename for matching to
 ** shared cache, it uses nullIfMemDb==0 so that in-memory databases can
 ** participate in shared-cache.
-*/
-SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager *pPager, int nullIfMemDb){
-  return (nullIfMemDb && pPager->memDb) ? "" : pPager->zFilename;
+**
+** The return value to this routine is always safe to use with
+** sqlite3_uri_parameter() and sqlite3_filename_database() and friends.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(const Pager *pPager, int nullIfMemDb){
+  static const char zFake[] = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
+  return (nullIfMemDb && pPager->memDb) ? &zFake[4] : pPager->zFilename;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -58283,6 +59104,8 @@
   return rc;
 }
 
+
+
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SNAPSHOT
 /*
 ** If this is a WAL database, obtain a snapshot handle for the snapshot
@@ -60203,7 +61026,19 @@
       ** not decreasing it. So assuming either that either the "old" or
       ** "new" version of the value is read, and not some arbitrary value
       ** that would never be written by a real client, things are still 
-      ** safe.  */
+      ** safe.
+      **
+      ** Astute readers have pointed out that the assumption stated in the
+      ** last sentence of the previous paragraph is not guaranteed to be
+      ** true for all conforming systems.  However, the assumption is true
+      ** for all compilers and architectures in common use today (circa
+      ** 2019-11-27) and the alternatives are both slow and complex, and
+      ** so we will continue to go with the current design for now.  If this
+      ** bothers you, or if you really are running on a system where aligned
+      ** 32-bit reads and writes are not atomic, then you can simply avoid
+      ** the use of WAL mode, or only use WAL mode together with
+      ** PRAGMA locking_mode=EXCLUSIVE and all will be well.
+      */
       u32 y = pInfo->aReadMark[i];
       if( mxSafeFrame>y ){
         assert( y<=pWal->hdr.mxFrame );
@@ -60281,6 +61116,10 @@
           }
         }
         if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
+          rc = sqlite3OsFileControl(pWal->pDbFd, SQLITE_FCNTL_CKPT_DONE, 0);
+          if( rc==SQLITE_NOTFOUND ) rc = SQLITE_OK;
+        }
+        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
           pInfo->nBackfill = mxSafeFrame;
         }
       }
@@ -61857,6 +62696,7 @@
         if( rc ) return rc;
         iOffset += szFrame;
         nExtra++;
+        assert( pLast!=0 );
       }
     }
     if( bSync ){
@@ -61889,6 +62729,7 @@
     iFrame++;
     rc = walIndexAppend(pWal, iFrame, p->pgno);
   }
+  assert( pLast!=0 || nExtra==0 );
   while( rc==SQLITE_OK && nExtra>0 ){
     iFrame++;
     nExtra--;
@@ -62788,6 +63629,7 @@
 #define BTCF_AtLast       0x08   /* Cursor is pointing ot the last entry */
 #define BTCF_Incrblob     0x10   /* True if an incremental I/O handle */
 #define BTCF_Multiple     0x20   /* Maybe another cursor on the same btree */
+#define BTCF_Pinned       0x40   /* Cursor is busy and cannot be moved */
 
 /*
 ** Potential values for BtCursor.eState.
@@ -62931,6 +63773,7 @@
   int v1, v2;       /* Values for up to two %d fields in zPfx */
   StrAccum errMsg;  /* Accumulate the error message text here */
   u32 *heap;        /* Min-heap used for analyzing cell coverage */
+  sqlite3 *db;      /* Database connection running the check */
 };
 
 /*
@@ -63952,6 +64795,9 @@
   assert( 0==pCur->pKey );
   assert( cursorHoldsMutex(pCur) );
 
+  if( pCur->curFlags & BTCF_Pinned ){
+    return SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_PINNED;
+  }
   if( pCur->eState==CURSOR_SKIPNEXT ){
     pCur->eState = CURSOR_VALID;
   }else{
@@ -64699,7 +65545,7 @@
         int sz2 = 0;
         int sz = get2byte(&data[iFree+2]);
         int top = get2byte(&data[hdr+5]);
-        if( top>=iFree ){
+        if( NEVER(top>=iFree) ){
           return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
         }
         if( iFree2 ){
@@ -64708,7 +65554,7 @@
           if( iFree2+sz2 > usableSize ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
           memmove(&data[iFree+sz+sz2], &data[iFree+sz], iFree2-(iFree+sz));
           sz += sz2;
-        }else if( iFree+sz>usableSize ){
+        }else if( NEVER(iFree+sz>usableSize) ){
           return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
         }
 
@@ -64900,9 +65746,14 @@
   if( (data[hdr+2] || data[hdr+1]) && gap+2<=top ){
     u8 *pSpace = pageFindSlot(pPage, nByte, &rc);
     if( pSpace ){
-      assert( pSpace>=data && (pSpace - data)<65536 );
-      *pIdx = (int)(pSpace - data);
-      return SQLITE_OK;
+      int g2;
+      assert( pSpace+nByte<=data+pPage->pBt->usableSize );
+      *pIdx = g2 = (int)(pSpace-data);
+      if( NEVER(g2<=gap) ){
+        return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
+      }else{
+        return SQLITE_OK;
+      }
     }else if( rc ){
       return rc;
     }
@@ -64976,12 +65827,12 @@
   }else{
     while( (iFreeBlk = get2byte(&data[iPtr]))<iStart ){
       if( iFreeBlk<iPtr+4 ){
-        if( iFreeBlk==0 ) break;
+        if( iFreeBlk==0 ) break; /* TH3: corrupt082.100 */
         return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
       }
       iPtr = iFreeBlk;
     }
-    if( iFreeBlk>pPage->pBt->usableSize-4 ){
+    if( iFreeBlk>pPage->pBt->usableSize-4 ){ /* TH3: corrupt081.100 */
       return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
     }
     assert( iFreeBlk>iPtr || iFreeBlk==0 );
@@ -64996,7 +65847,7 @@
       nFrag = iFreeBlk - iEnd;
       if( iEnd>iFreeBlk ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
       iEnd = iFreeBlk + get2byte(&data[iFreeBlk+2]);
-      if( iEnd > pPage->pBt->usableSize ){
+      if( NEVER(iEnd > pPage->pBt->usableSize) ){
         return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
       }
       iSize = iEnd - iStart;
@@ -65024,7 +65875,8 @@
     /* The new freeblock is at the beginning of the cell content area,
     ** so just extend the cell content area rather than create another
     ** freelist entry */
-    if( iStart<x || iPtr!=hdr+1 ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
+    if( iStart<x ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
+    if( NEVER(iPtr!=hdr+1) ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
     put2byte(&data[hdr+1], iFreeBlk);
     put2byte(&data[hdr+5], iEnd);
   }else{
@@ -65144,7 +65996,7 @@
   nFree = data[hdr+7] + top;  /* Init nFree to non-freeblock free space */
   if( pc>0 ){
     u32 next, size;
-    if( pc<iCellFirst ){
+    if( pc<top ){
       /* EVIDENCE-OF: R-55530-52930 In a well-formed b-tree page, there will
       ** always be at least one cell before the first freeblock.
       */
@@ -65381,12 +66233,12 @@
 ** error, return ((unsigned int)-1).
 */
 static Pgno btreePagecount(BtShared *pBt){
+  assert( (pBt->nPage & 0x80000000)==0 || CORRUPT_DB );
   return pBt->nPage;
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3BtreeLastPage(Btree *p){
   assert( sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(p) );
-  assert( ((p->pBt->nPage)&0x80000000)==0 );
-  return btreePagecount(p->pBt);
+  return btreePagecount(p->pBt) & 0x7fffffff;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -65653,9 +66505,13 @@
         rc = sqlite3OsFullPathname(pVfs, zFilename,
                                    nFullPathname, zFullPathname);
         if( rc ){
-          sqlite3_free(zFullPathname);
-          sqlite3_free(p);
-          return rc;
+          if( rc==SQLITE_OK_SYMLINK ){
+            rc = SQLITE_OK;
+          }else{
+            sqlite3_free(zFullPathname);
+            sqlite3_free(p);
+            return rc;
+          }
         }
       }
 #if SQLITE_THREADSAFE
@@ -67615,8 +68471,9 @@
   /* The following assert statements verify that if this is a sharable 
   ** b-tree database, the connection is holding the required table locks, 
   ** and that no other connection has any open cursor that conflicts with 
-  ** this lock.  */
-  assert( hasSharedCacheTableLock(p, iTable, pKeyInfo!=0, (wrFlag?2:1)) );
+  ** this lock.  The iTable<1 term disables the check for corrupt schemas. */
+  assert( hasSharedCacheTableLock(p, iTable, pKeyInfo!=0, (wrFlag?2:1))
+          || iTable<1 );
   assert( wrFlag==0 || !hasReadConflicts(p, iTable) );
 
   /* Assert that the caller has opened the required transaction. */
@@ -67629,9 +68486,13 @@
     allocateTempSpace(pBt);
     if( pBt->pTmpSpace==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
   }
-  if( iTable==1 && btreePagecount(pBt)==0 ){
-    assert( wrFlag==0 );
-    iTable = 0;
+  if( iTable<=1 ){
+    if( iTable<1 ){
+      return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+    }else if( btreePagecount(pBt)==0 ){
+      assert( wrFlag==0 );
+      iTable = 0;
+    }
   }
 
   /* Now that no other errors can occur, finish filling in the BtCursor
@@ -67656,6 +68517,19 @@
   pCur->eState = CURSOR_INVALID;
   return SQLITE_OK;
 }
+static int btreeCursorWithLock(
+  Btree *p,                              /* The btree */
+  int iTable,                            /* Root page of table to open */
+  int wrFlag,                            /* 1 to write. 0 read-only */
+  struct KeyInfo *pKeyInfo,              /* First arg to comparison function */
+  BtCursor *pCur                         /* Space for new cursor */
+){
+  int rc;
+  sqlite3BtreeEnter(p);
+  rc = btreeCursor(p, iTable, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur);
+  sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
+  return rc;
+}
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
   Btree *p,                                   /* The btree */
   int iTable,                                 /* Root page of table to open */
@@ -67663,15 +68537,11 @@
   struct KeyInfo *pKeyInfo,                   /* First arg to xCompare() */
   BtCursor *pCur                              /* Write new cursor here */
 ){
-  int rc;
-  if( iTable<1 ){
-    rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
-  }else{
-    sqlite3BtreeEnter(p);
-    rc = btreeCursor(p, iTable, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur);
-    sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
-  }
-  return rc;
+  if( p->sharable ){
+    return btreeCursorWithLock(p, iTable, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur);
+  }else{
+    return btreeCursor(p, iTable, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur);
+  }
 }
 
 /*
@@ -67794,6 +68664,18 @@
   return pCur->info.nKey;
 }
 
+/*
+** Pin or unpin a cursor.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorPin(BtCursor *pCur){
+  assert( (pCur->curFlags & BTCF_Pinned)==0 );
+  pCur->curFlags |= BTCF_Pinned;
+}
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorUnpin(BtCursor *pCur){
+  assert( (pCur->curFlags & BTCF_Pinned)!=0 );
+  pCur->curFlags &= ~BTCF_Pinned;
+}
+
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_OFFSET_SQL_FUNC
 /*
 ** Return the offset into the database file for the start of the
@@ -68129,6 +69011,7 @@
           assert( aWrite>=pBufStart );                         /* due to (6) */
           memcpy(aSave, aWrite, 4);
           rc = sqlite3OsRead(fd, aWrite, a+4, (i64)pBt->pageSize*(nextPage-1));
+          if( rc && nextPage>pBt->nPage ) rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
           nextPage = get4byte(aWrite);
           memcpy(aWrite, aSave, 4);
         }else
@@ -68949,8 +69832,11 @@
   ** to be invalid here. This can only occur if a second cursor modifies
   ** the page while cursor pCur is holding a reference to it. Which can
   ** only happen if the database is corrupt in such a way as to link the
-  ** page into more than one b-tree structure. */
-  testcase( idx>pPage->nCell );
+  ** page into more than one b-tree structure.
+  **
+  ** Update 2019-12-23: appears to long longer be possible after the
+  ** addition of anotherValidCursor() condition on balance_deeper().  */
+  harmless( idx>pPage->nCell );
 
   if( idx>=pPage->nCell ){
     if( !pPage->leaf ){
@@ -69917,12 +70803,7 @@
   assert( pPage->nOverflow<=ArraySize(pPage->apOvfl) );
   assert( ArraySize(pPage->apOvfl)==ArraySize(pPage->aiOvfl) );
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(pPage->pBt->mutex) );
-  /* The cell should normally be sized correctly.  However, when moving a
-  ** malformed cell from a leaf page to an interior page, if the cell size
-  ** wanted to be less than 4 but got rounded up to 4 on the leaf, then size
-  ** might be less than 8 (leaf-size + pointer) on the interior node.  Hence
-  ** the term after the || in the following assert(). */
-  assert( sz==pPage->xCellSize(pPage, pCell) || (sz==8 && iChild>0) );
+  assert( sz==pPage->xCellSize(pPage, pCell) || CORRUPT_DB );
   assert( pPage->nFree>=0 );
   if( pPage->nOverflow || sz+2>pPage->nFree ){
     if( pTemp ){
@@ -70180,7 +71061,7 @@
     if( pData < pCellptr ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
     memcpy(pData, pCell, sz);
     assert( sz==pPg->xCellSize(pPg, pCell) || CORRUPT_DB );
-    testcase( sz!=pPg->xCellSize(pPg,pCell) );
+    testcase( sz!=pPg->xCellSize(pPg,pCell) )
     i++;
     if( i>=iEnd ) break;
     if( pCArray->ixNx[k]<=i ){
@@ -70246,7 +71127,8 @@
   while( 1 /*Exit by break*/ ){
     int sz, rc;
     u8 *pSlot;
-    sz = cachedCellSize(pCArray, i);
+    assert( pCArray->szCell[i]!=0 );
+    sz = pCArray->szCell[i];
     if( (aData[1]==0 && aData[2]==0) || (pSlot = pageFindSlot(pPg,sz,&rc))==0 ){
       if( (pData - pBegin)<sz ) return 1;
       pData -= sz;
@@ -70407,6 +71289,7 @@
         memmove(&pCellptr[2], pCellptr, (nCell - iCell) * 2);
       }
       nCell++;
+      cachedCellSize(pCArray, iCell+iNew);
       if( pageInsertArray(
             pPg, pBegin, &pData, pCellptr,
             iCell+iNew, 1, pCArray
@@ -70929,7 +71812,7 @@
     */
     memset(&b.szCell[b.nCell], 0, sizeof(b.szCell[0])*(limit+pOld->nOverflow));
     if( pOld->nOverflow>0 ){
-      if( limit<pOld->aiOvfl[0] ){
+      if( NEVER(limit<pOld->aiOvfl[0]) ){
         rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
         goto balance_cleanup;
       }
@@ -71215,6 +72098,8 @@
   ));
 
   assert( sqlite3PagerIswriteable(pParent->pDbPage) );
+  assert( nNew>=1 && nNew<=ArraySize(apNew) );
+  assert( apNew[nNew-1]!=0 );
   put4byte(pRight, apNew[nNew-1]->pgno);
 
   /* If the sibling pages are not leaves, ensure that the right-child pointer
@@ -71541,6 +72426,30 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Return SQLITE_CORRUPT if any cursor other than pCur is currently valid
+** on the same B-tree as pCur.
+**
+** This can if a database is corrupt with two or more SQL tables
+** pointing to the same b-tree.  If an insert occurs on one SQL table
+** and causes a BEFORE TRIGGER to do a secondary insert on the other SQL
+** table linked to the same b-tree.  If the secondary insert causes a
+** rebalance, that can change content out from under the cursor on the
+** first SQL table, violating invariants on the first insert.
+*/
+static int anotherValidCursor(BtCursor *pCur){
+  BtCursor *pOther;
+  for(pOther=pCur->pBt->pCursor; pOther; pOther=pOther->pNext){
+    if( pOther!=pCur
+     && pOther->eState==CURSOR_VALID
+     && pOther->pPage==pCur->pPage
+    ){
+      return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+    }
+  }
+  return SQLITE_OK;
+}
+
+/*
 ** The page that pCur currently points to has just been modified in
 ** some way. This function figures out if this modification means the
 ** tree needs to be balanced, and if so calls the appropriate balancing 
@@ -71560,12 +72469,14 @@
   VVA_ONLY( int balance_deeper_called = 0 );
 
   do {
-    int iPage = pCur->iPage;
+    int iPage;
     MemPage *pPage = pCur->pPage;
 
     if( NEVER(pPage->nFree<0) && btreeComputeFreeSpace(pPage) ) break;
-    if( iPage==0 ){
-      if( pPage->nOverflow ){
+    if( pPage->nOverflow==0 && pPage->nFree<=nMin ){
+      break;
+    }else if( (iPage = pCur->iPage)==0 ){
+      if( pPage->nOverflow && (rc = anotherValidCursor(pCur))==SQLITE_OK ){
         /* The root page of the b-tree is overfull. In this case call the
         ** balance_deeper() function to create a new child for the root-page
         ** and copy the current contents of the root-page to it. The
@@ -71585,8 +72496,6 @@
       }else{
         break;
       }
-    }else if( pPage->nOverflow==0 && pPage->nFree<=nMin ){
-      break;
     }else{
       MemPage * const pParent = pCur->apPage[iPage-1];
       int const iIdx = pCur->aiIdx[iPage-1];
@@ -71728,7 +72637,9 @@
   Pgno ovflPgno;                      /* Next overflow page to write */
   u32 ovflPageSize;                   /* Size to write on overflow page */
 
-  if( pCur->info.pPayload + pCur->info.nLocal > pPage->aDataEnd ){
+  if( pCur->info.pPayload + pCur->info.nLocal > pPage->aDataEnd
+   || pCur->info.pPayload < pPage->aData + pPage->cellOffset
+  ){
     return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
   }
   /* Overwrite the local portion first */
@@ -71861,7 +72772,6 @@
     if( flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION ){
       assert( pCur->curFlags & BTCF_ValidNKey );
       assert( pX->nKey==pCur->info.nKey );
-      assert( pCur->info.nSize!=0 );
       assert( loc==0 );
     }
 #endif
@@ -71936,7 +72846,9 @@
     }
 
   }
-  assert( pCur->eState==CURSOR_VALID || (pCur->eState==CURSOR_INVALID && loc) );
+  assert( pCur->eState==CURSOR_VALID 
+       || (pCur->eState==CURSOR_INVALID && loc)
+       || CORRUPT_DB );
 
   pPage = pCur->pPage;
   assert( pPage->intKey || pX->nKey>=0 );
@@ -71969,6 +72881,8 @@
       memcpy(newCell, oldCell, 4);
     }
     rc = clearCell(pPage, oldCell, &info);
+    testcase( pCur->curFlags & BTCF_ValidOvfl );
+    invalidateOverflowCache(pCur);
     if( info.nSize==szNew && info.nLocal==info.nPayload 
      && (!ISAUTOVACUUM || szNew<pPage->minLocal)
     ){
@@ -71982,7 +72896,12 @@
       ** new entry uses overflow pages, as the insertCell() call below is
       ** necessary to add the PTRMAP_OVERFLOW1 pointer-map entry.  */
       assert( rc==SQLITE_OK ); /* clearCell never fails when nLocal==nPayload */
-      if( oldCell+szNew > pPage->aDataEnd ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+      if( oldCell < pPage->aData+pPage->hdrOffset+10 ){
+        return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+      }
+      if( oldCell+szNew > pPage->aDataEnd ){
+        return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+      }
       memcpy(oldCell, newCell, szNew);
       return SQLITE_OK;
     }
@@ -72700,7 +73619,7 @@
 ** Otherwise, if an error is encountered (i.e. an IO error or database
 ** corruption) an SQLite error code is returned.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCount(BtCursor *pCur, i64 *pnEntry){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCount(sqlite3 *db, BtCursor *pCur, i64 *pnEntry){
   i64 nEntry = 0;                      /* Value to return in *pnEntry */
   int rc;                              /* Return code */
 
@@ -72713,7 +73632,7 @@
   /* Unless an error occurs, the following loop runs one iteration for each
   ** page in the B-Tree structure (not including overflow pages). 
   */
-  while( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
+  while( rc==SQLITE_OK && !db->u1.isInterrupted ){
     int iIdx;                          /* Index of child node in parent */
     MemPage *pPage;                    /* Current page of the b-tree */
 
@@ -72839,6 +73758,7 @@
     checkAppendMsg(pCheck, "2nd reference to page %d", iPage);
     return 1;
   }
+  if( pCheck->db->u1.isInterrupted ) return 1;
   setPageReferenced(pCheck, iPage);
   return 0;
 }
@@ -73282,6 +74202,7 @@
 ** returned.  If a memory allocation error occurs, NULL is returned.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(
+  sqlite3 *db,  /* Database connection that is running the check */
   Btree *p,     /* The btree to be checked */
   int *aRoot,   /* An array of root pages numbers for individual trees */
   int nRoot,    /* Number of entries in aRoot[] */
@@ -73299,6 +74220,7 @@
   assert( p->inTrans>TRANS_NONE && pBt->inTransaction>TRANS_NONE );
   VVA_ONLY( nRef = sqlite3PagerRefcount(pBt->pPager) );
   assert( nRef>=0 );
+  sCheck.db = db;
   sCheck.pBt = pBt;
   sCheck.pPager = pBt->pPager;
   sCheck.nPage = btreePagecount(sCheck.pBt);
@@ -74319,8 +75241,10 @@
   }
   if( p->isAttached ){
     pp = sqlite3PagerBackupPtr(sqlite3BtreePager(p->pSrc));
+    assert( pp!=0 );
     while( *pp!=p ){
       pp = &(*pp)->pNext;
+      assert( pp!=0 );
     }
     *pp = p->pNext;
   }
@@ -74735,7 +75659,13 @@
   assert( pMem->szMalloc==0
        || pMem->szMalloc==sqlite3DbMallocSize(pMem->db, pMem->zMalloc) );
   if( pMem->szMalloc>0 && bPreserve && pMem->z==pMem->zMalloc ){
-    pMem->z = pMem->zMalloc = sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(pMem->db, pMem->z, n);
+    if( pMem->db ){
+      pMem->z = pMem->zMalloc = sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(pMem->db, pMem->z, n);
+    }else{
+      pMem->zMalloc = sqlite3Realloc(pMem->z, n);
+      if( pMem->zMalloc==0 ) sqlite3_free(pMem->z);
+      pMem->z = pMem->zMalloc;
+    }
     bPreserve = 0;
   }else{
     if( pMem->szMalloc>0 ) sqlite3DbFreeNN(pMem->db, pMem->zMalloc);
@@ -74957,15 +75887,11 @@
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemAggValue(Mem *pAccum, Mem *pOut, FuncDef *pFunc){
   sqlite3_context ctx;
-  Mem t;
   assert( pFunc!=0 );
   assert( pFunc->xValue!=0 );
   assert( (pAccum->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 || pFunc==pAccum->u.pDef );
   assert( pAccum->db==0 || sqlite3_mutex_held(pAccum->db->mutex) );
   memset(&ctx, 0, sizeof(ctx));
-  memset(&t, 0, sizeof(t));
-  t.flags = MEM_Null;
-  t.db = pAccum->db;
   sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
   ctx.pOut = pOut;
   ctx.pMem = pAccum;
@@ -75091,8 +76017,7 @@
     return pMem->u.i;
   }else if( flags & MEM_Real ){
     return doubleToInt64(pMem->u.r);
-  }else if( flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) ){
-    assert( pMem->z || pMem->n==0 );
+  }else if( (flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))!=0 && pMem->z!=0 ){
     return memIntValue(pMem);
   }else{
     return 0;
@@ -75249,8 +76174,8 @@
 ** affinity even if that results in loss of data.  This routine is
 ** used (for example) to implement the SQL "cast()" operator.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemCast(Mem *pMem, u8 aff, u8 encoding){
-  if( pMem->flags & MEM_Null ) return;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemCast(Mem *pMem, u8 aff, u8 encoding){
+  if( pMem->flags & MEM_Null ) return SQLITE_OK;
   switch( aff ){
     case SQLITE_AFF_BLOB: {   /* Really a cast to BLOB */
       if( (pMem->flags & MEM_Blob)==0 ){
@@ -75281,9 +76206,10 @@
       sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(pMem, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
       assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Str || pMem->db->mallocFailed );
       pMem->flags &= ~(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_IntReal|MEM_Blob|MEM_Zero);
-      break;
-    }
-  }
+      return sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pMem, encoding);
+    }
+  }
+  return SQLITE_OK;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -75449,23 +76375,30 @@
 ** its link to a shallow copy and by marking any current shallow
 ** copies of this cell as invalid.
 **
-** This is used for testing and debugging only - to make sure shallow
-** copies are not misused.
+** This is used for testing and debugging only - to help ensure that shallow
+** copies (created by OP_SCopy) are not misused.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemAboutToChange(Vdbe *pVdbe, Mem *pMem){
   int i;
   Mem *pX;
-  for(i=0, pX=pVdbe->aMem; i<pVdbe->nMem; i++, pX++){
+  for(i=1, pX=pVdbe->aMem+1; i<pVdbe->nMem; i++, pX++){
     if( pX->pScopyFrom==pMem ){
+      u16 mFlags;
+      if( pVdbe->db->flags & SQLITE_VdbeTrace ){
+        sqlite3DebugPrintf("Invalidate R[%d] due to change in R[%d]\n",
+          (int)(pX - pVdbe->aMem), (int)(pMem - pVdbe->aMem));
+      }
       /* If pX is marked as a shallow copy of pMem, then verify that
       ** no significant changes have been made to pX since the OP_SCopy.
       ** A significant change would indicated a missed call to this
       ** function for pX.  Minor changes, such as adding or removing a
       ** dual type, are allowed, as long as the underlying value is the
       ** same. */
-      u16 mFlags = pMem->flags & pX->flags & pX->mScopyFlags;
+      mFlags = pMem->flags & pX->flags & pX->mScopyFlags;
       assert( (mFlags&(MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal))==0 || pMem->u.i==pX->u.i );
-      assert( (mFlags&MEM_Real)==0 || pMem->u.r==pX->u.r );
+      /* assert( (mFlags&MEM_Real)==0 || pMem->u.r==pX->u.r ); */
+      /*                                          ^^           */
+      /*       Cannot reliably compare doubles for equality    */
       assert( (mFlags&MEM_Str)==0  || (pMem->n==pX->n && pMem->z==pX->z) );
       assert( (mFlags&MEM_Blob)==0  || sqlite3BlobCompare(pMem,pX)==0 );
       
@@ -75479,7 +76412,6 @@
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
 
-
 /*
 ** Make an shallow copy of pFrom into pTo.  Prior contents of
 ** pTo are freed.  The pFrom->z field is not duplicated.  If
@@ -75625,10 +76557,19 @@
 
   pMem->n = nByte;
   pMem->flags = flags;
-  pMem->enc = (enc==0 ? SQLITE_UTF8 : enc);
+  if( enc ){
+    pMem->enc = enc;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION
+  }else if( pMem->db==0 ){
+    pMem->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
+#endif
+  }else{
+    assert( pMem->db!=0 );
+    pMem->enc = ENC(pMem->db);
+  }
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
-  if( pMem->enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 && sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom(pMem) ){
+  if( enc>SQLITE_UTF8 && sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom(pMem) ){
     return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
   }
 #endif
@@ -75806,7 +76747,7 @@
 ** an sqlite3_value within the UnpackedRecord.a[] array.
 */
 static sqlite3_value *valueNew(sqlite3 *db, struct ValueNewStat4Ctx *p){
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( p ){
     UnpackedRecord *pRec = p->ppRec[0];
 
@@ -75842,7 +76783,7 @@
   }
 #else
   UNUSED_PARAMETER(p);
-#endif /* defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4) */
+#endif /* defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4) */
   return sqlite3ValueNew(db);
 }
 
@@ -75866,7 +76807,7 @@
 ** and sets (*ppVal) to NULL. Or, if an error occurs, (*ppVal) is set to
 ** NULL and an SQLite error code returned.
 */
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
 static int valueFromFunction(
   sqlite3 *db,                    /* The database connection */
   Expr *p,                        /* The expression to evaluate */
@@ -75949,7 +76890,7 @@
 }
 #else
 # define valueFromFunction(a,b,c,d,e,f) SQLITE_OK
-#endif /* defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4) */
+#endif /* defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4) */
 
 /*
 ** Extract a value from the supplied expression in the manner described
@@ -75978,7 +76919,7 @@
 
   assert( pExpr!=0 );
   while( (op = pExpr->op)==TK_UPLUS || op==TK_SPAN ) pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
-#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4)
+#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4)
   if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = pExpr->op2;
 #else
   if( NEVER(op==TK_REGISTER) ) op = pExpr->op2;
@@ -76045,7 +76986,11 @@
       if( pVal->flags & MEM_Real ){
         pVal->u.r = -pVal->u.r;
       }else if( pVal->u.i==SMALLEST_INT64 ){
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
         pVal->u.r = -(double)SMALLEST_INT64;
+#else
+        pVal->u.r = LARGEST_INT64;
+#endif
         MemSetTypeFlag(pVal, MEM_Real);
       }else{
         pVal->u.i = -pVal->u.i;
@@ -76071,7 +77016,7 @@
                          0, SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
   }
 #endif
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   else if( op==TK_FUNCTION && pCtx!=0 ){
     rc = valueFromFunction(db, pExpr, enc, affinity, &pVal, pCtx);
   }
@@ -76088,13 +77033,13 @@
   return rc;
 
 no_mem:
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( pCtx==0 || pCtx->pParse->nErr==0 )
 #endif
     sqlite3OomFault(db);
   sqlite3DbFree(db, zVal);
   assert( *ppVal==0 );
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( pCtx==0 ) sqlite3ValueFree(pVal);
 #else
   assert( pCtx==0 ); sqlite3ValueFree(pVal);
@@ -76122,56 +77067,7 @@
   return pExpr ? valueFromExpr(db, pExpr, enc, affinity, ppVal, 0) : 0;
 }
 
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
-/*
-** The implementation of the sqlite_record() function. This function accepts
-** a single argument of any type. The return value is a formatted database 
-** record (a blob) containing the argument value.
-**
-** This is used to convert the value stored in the 'sample' column of the
-** sqlite_stat3 table to the record format SQLite uses internally.
-*/
-static void recordFunc(
-  sqlite3_context *context,
-  int argc,
-  sqlite3_value **argv
-){
-  const int file_format = 1;
-  u32 iSerial;                    /* Serial type */
-  int nSerial;                    /* Bytes of space for iSerial as varint */
-  u32 nVal;                       /* Bytes of space required for argv[0] */
-  int nRet;
-  sqlite3 *db;
-  u8 *aRet;
-
-  UNUSED_PARAMETER( argc );
-  iSerial = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(argv[0], file_format, &nVal);
-  nSerial = sqlite3VarintLen(iSerial);
-  db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
-
-  nRet = 1 + nSerial + nVal;
-  aRet = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, nRet);
-  if( aRet==0 ){
-    sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
-  }else{
-    aRet[0] = nSerial+1;
-    putVarint32(&aRet[1], iSerial);
-    sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(&aRet[1+nSerial], argv[0], iSerial);
-    sqlite3_result_blob(context, aRet, nRet, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
-    sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, aRet);
-  }
-}
-
-/*
-** Register built-in functions used to help read ANALYZE data.
-*/
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void){
-  static FuncDef aAnalyzeTableFuncs[] = {
-    FUNCTION(sqlite_record,   1, 0, 0, recordFunc),
-  };
-  sqlite3InsertBuiltinFuncs(aAnalyzeTableFuncs, ArraySize(aAnalyzeTableFuncs));
-}
-
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
 /*
 ** Attempt to extract a value from pExpr and use it to construct *ppVal.
 **
@@ -76453,6 +77349,10 @@
 /* #include "sqliteInt.h" */
 /* #include "vdbeInt.h" */
 
+/* Forward references */
+static void freeEphemeralFunction(sqlite3 *db, FuncDef *pDef);
+static void vdbeFreeOpArray(sqlite3 *, Op *, int);
+
 /*
 ** Create a new virtual database engine.
 */
@@ -76481,6 +77381,13 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Return the Parse object that owns a Vdbe object.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Parse *sqlite3VdbeParser(Vdbe *p){
+  return p->pParse;
+}
+
+/*
 ** Change the error string stored in Vdbe.zErrMsg
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeError(Vdbe *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
@@ -76560,7 +77467,7 @@
   zTmp = pA->zSql;
   pA->zSql = pB->zSql;
   pB->zSql = zTmp;
-#if 0
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NORMALIZE
   zTmp = pA->zNormSql;
   pA->zNormSql = pB->zNormSql;
   pB->zNormSql = zTmp;
@@ -76621,9 +77528,16 @@
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 /* This routine is just a convenient place to set a breakpoint that will
 ** fire after each opcode is inserted and displayed using
-** "PRAGMA vdbe_addoptrace=on".
-*/
-static void test_addop_breakpoint(void){
+** "PRAGMA vdbe_addoptrace=on".  Parameters "pc" (program counter) and
+** pOp are available to make the breakpoint conditional.
+**
+** Other useful labels for breakpoints include:
+**   test_trace_breakpoint(pc,pOp)
+**   sqlite3CorruptError(lineno)
+**   sqlite3MisuseError(lineno)
+**   sqlite3CantopenError(lineno)
+*/
+static void test_addop_breakpoint(int pc, Op *pOp){
   static int n = 0;
   n++;
 }
@@ -76676,7 +77590,7 @@
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
   if( p->db->flags & SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace ){
     sqlite3VdbePrintOp(0, i, &p->aOp[i]);
-    test_addop_breakpoint();
+    test_addop_breakpoint(i, &p->aOp[i]);
   }
 #endif
 #ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
@@ -76760,6 +77674,49 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Add an OP_Function or OP_PureFunc opcode.
+**
+** The eCallCtx argument is information (typically taken from Expr.op2)
+** that describes the calling context of the function.  0 means a general
+** function call.  NC_IsCheck means called by a check constraint,
+** NC_IdxExpr means called as part of an index expression.  NC_PartIdx
+** means in the WHERE clause of a partial index.  NC_GenCol means called
+** while computing a generated column value.  0 is the usual case.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddFunctionCall(
+  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
+  int p1,               /* Constant argument mask */
+  int p2,               /* First argument register */
+  int p3,               /* Register into which results are written */
+  int nArg,             /* Number of argument */
+  const FuncDef *pFunc, /* The function to be invoked */
+  int eCallCtx          /* Calling context */
+){
+  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+  int nByte;
+  int addr;
+  sqlite3_context *pCtx;
+  assert( v );
+  nByte = sizeof(*pCtx) + (nArg-1)*sizeof(sqlite3_value*);
+  pCtx = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, nByte);
+  if( pCtx==0 ){
+    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
+    freeEphemeralFunction(pParse->db, (FuncDef*)pFunc);
+    return 0;
+  }
+  pCtx->pOut = 0;
+  pCtx->pFunc = (FuncDef*)pFunc;
+  pCtx->pVdbe = 0;
+  pCtx->isError = 0;
+  pCtx->argc = nArg;
+  pCtx->iOp = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
+  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, eCallCtx ? OP_PureFunc : OP_Function,
+                           p1, p2, p3, (char*)pCtx, P4_FUNCCTX);
+  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, eCallCtx & NC_SelfRef);
+  return addr;
+}
+
+/*
 ** Add an opcode that includes the p4 value with a P4_INT64 or
 ** P4_REAL type.
 */
@@ -77051,6 +78008,7 @@
 **   *  OP_HaltIfNull with P1=SQLITE_CONSTRAINT and P2=OE_Abort.
 **   *  OP_Destroy
 **   *  OP_VUpdate
+**   *  OP_VCreate
 **   *  OP_VRename
 **   *  OP_FkCounter with P2==0 (immediate foreign key constraint)
 **   *  OP_CreateBtree/BTREE_INTKEY and OP_InitCoroutine 
@@ -77078,7 +78036,8 @@
     int opcode = pOp->opcode;
     if( opcode==OP_Destroy || opcode==OP_VUpdate || opcode==OP_VRename 
      || opcode==OP_VDestroy
-     || (opcode==OP_Function0 && pOp->p4.pFunc->funcFlags&SQLITE_FUNC_INTERNAL)
+     || opcode==OP_VCreate
+     || (opcode==OP_ParseSchema && pOp->p4.z==0)
      || ((opcode==OP_Halt || opcode==OP_HaltIfNull) 
       && ((pOp->p1)!=SQLITE_OK && pOp->p2==OE_Abort))
     ){
@@ -77415,16 +78374,16 @@
 ** Change the value of the opcode, or P1, P2, P3, or P5 operands
 ** for a specific instruction.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe *p, u32 addr, u8 iNewOpcode){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe *p, int addr, u8 iNewOpcode){
   sqlite3VdbeGetOp(p,addr)->opcode = iNewOpcode;
 }
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe *p, u32 addr, int val){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe *p, int addr, int val){
   sqlite3VdbeGetOp(p,addr)->p1 = val;
 }
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe *p, u32 addr, int val){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe *p, int addr, int val){
   sqlite3VdbeGetOp(p,addr)->p2 = val;
 }
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe *p, u32 addr, int val){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe *p, int addr, int val){
   sqlite3VdbeGetOp(p,addr)->p3 = val;
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe *p, u16 p5){
@@ -77451,8 +78410,6 @@
   }
 }
 
-static void vdbeFreeOpArray(sqlite3 *, Op *, int);
-
 /*
 ** Delete a P4 value if necessary.
 */
@@ -77462,7 +78419,7 @@
 }
 static SQLITE_NOINLINE void freeP4FuncCtx(sqlite3 *db, sqlite3_context *p){
   freeEphemeralFunction(db, p->pFunc);
- sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
+  sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
 }
 static void freeP4(sqlite3 *db, int p4type, void *p4){
   assert( db );
@@ -77537,6 +78494,13 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Return true if the given Vdbe has any SubPrograms.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeHasSubProgram(Vdbe *pVdbe){
+  return pVdbe->pProgram!=0;
+}
+
+/*
 ** Change the opcode at addr into OP_Noop
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe *p, int addr){
@@ -77563,6 +78527,41 @@
   }
 }
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/*
+** Generate an OP_ReleaseReg opcode to indicate that a range of
+** registers, except any identified by mask, are no longer in use.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(
+  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
+  int iFirst,          /* Index of first register to be released */
+  int N,               /* Number of registers to release */
+  u32 mask,            /* Mask of registers to NOT release */
+  int bUndefine        /* If true, mark registers as undefined */
+){
+  if( N==0 ) return;
+  assert( pParse->pVdbe );
+  assert( iFirst>=1 );
+  assert( iFirst+N-1<=pParse->nMem );
+  if( N<=31 && mask!=0 ){
+    while( N>0 && (mask&1)!=0 ){
+      mask >>= 1;
+      iFirst++;
+      N--;
+    }
+    while( N>0 && N<=32 && (mask & MASKBIT32(N-1))!=0 ){
+      mask &= ~MASKBIT32(N-1);
+      N--;
+    }
+  }
+  if( N>0 ){
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(pParse->pVdbe, OP_ReleaseReg, iFirst, N, *(int*)&mask);
+    if( bUndefine ) sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(pParse->pVdbe, 1);
+  }
+}
+#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
+
+
 /*
 ** Change the value of the P4 operand for a specific instruction.
 ** This routine is useful when a large program is loaded from a
@@ -77680,7 +78679,8 @@
 */
 static void vdbeVComment(Vdbe *p, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
   assert( p->nOp>0 || p->aOp==0 );
-  assert( p->aOp==0 || p->aOp[p->nOp-1].zComment==0 || p->db->mallocFailed );
+  assert( p->aOp==0 || p->aOp[p->nOp-1].zComment==0 || p->db->mallocFailed
+          || p->pParse->nErr>0 );
   if( p->nOp ){
     assert( p->aOp );
     sqlite3DbFree(p->db, p->aOp[p->nOp-1].zComment);
@@ -77931,14 +78931,16 @@
     case P4_KEYINFO: {
       int j;
       KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
-      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
+      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortFlags!=0 );
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "k(%d", pKeyInfo->nKeyField);
       for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nKeyField; j++){
         CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
         const char *zColl = pColl ? pColl->zName : "";
         if( strcmp(zColl, "BINARY")==0 ) zColl = "B";
-        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%s%s", 
-               pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ? "-" : "", zColl);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%s%s%s", 
+               (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[j] & KEYINFO_ORDER_DESC) ? "-" : "", 
+               (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[j] & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL)? "N." : "", 
+               zColl);
       }
       sqlite3_str_append(&x, ")", 1);
       break;
@@ -77959,13 +78961,11 @@
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
       break;
     }
-#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(VDBE_PROFILE)
     case P4_FUNCCTX: {
       FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pCtx->pFunc;
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
       break;
     }
-#endif
     case P4_INT64: {
       sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%lld", *pOp->p4.pI64);
       break;
@@ -78345,8 +79345,11 @@
       ** pick up the appropriate opcode. */
       int j;
       i -= p->nOp;
+      assert( apSub!=0 );
+      assert( nSub>0 );
       for(j=0; i>=apSub[j]->nOp; j++){
         i -= apSub[j]->nOp;
+        assert( i<apSub[j]->nOp || j+1<nSub );
       }
       pOp = &apSub[j]->aOp[i];
     }
@@ -78656,8 +79659,26 @@
 
   resolveP2Values(p, &nArg);
   p->usesStmtJournal = (u8)(pParse->isMultiWrite && pParse->mayAbort);
-  if( pParse->explain && nMem<10 ){
-    nMem = 10;
+  if( pParse->explain ){
+    static const char * const azColName[] = {
+       "addr", "opcode", "p1", "p2", "p3", "p4", "p5", "comment",
+       "id", "parent", "notused", "detail"
+    };
+    int iFirst, mx, i;
+    if( nMem<10 ) nMem = 10;
+    if( pParse->explain==2 ){
+      sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(p, 4);
+      iFirst = 8;
+      mx = 12;
+    }else{
+      sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(p, 8);
+      iFirst = 0;
+      mx = 8;
+    }
+    for(i=iFirst; i<mx; i++){
+      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(p, i-iFirst, COLNAME_NAME,
+                            azColName[i], SQLITE_STATIC);
+    }
   }
   p->expired = 0;
 
@@ -79007,7 +80028,7 @@
 
     /* Select a master journal file name */
     nMainFile = sqlite3Strlen30(zMainFile);
-    zMaster = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "%s-mjXXXXXX9XXz", zMainFile);
+    zMaster = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "%s-mjXXXXXX9XXz%c%c", zMainFile, 0, 0);
     if( zMaster==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
     do {
       u32 iRandom;
@@ -79746,7 +80767,7 @@
 ** carried out.  Seek the cursor now.  If an error occurs, return
 ** the appropriate error code.
 */
-static int SQLITE_NOINLINE handleDeferredMoveto(VdbeCursor *p){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int SQLITE_NOINLINE sqlite3VdbeFinishMoveto(VdbeCursor *p){
   int res, rc;
 #ifdef SQLITE_TEST
   extern int sqlite3_search_count;
@@ -79818,7 +80839,7 @@
       *piCol = iMap - 1;
       return SQLITE_OK;
     }
-    return handleDeferredMoveto(p);
+    return sqlite3VdbeFinishMoveto(p);
   }
   if( sqlite3BtreeCursorHasMoved(p->uc.pCursor) ){
     return handleMovedCursor(p);
@@ -79868,10 +80889,17 @@
 ** of SQLite will not understand those serial types.
 */
 
+#if 0 /* Inlined into the OP_MakeRecord opcode */
 /*
 ** Return the serial-type for the value stored in pMem.
 **
 ** This routine might convert a large MEM_IntReal value into MEM_Real.
+**
+** 2019-07-11:  The primary user of this subroutine was the OP_MakeRecord
+** opcode in the byte-code engine.  But by moving this routine in-line, we
+** can omit some redundant tests and make that opcode a lot faster.  So
+** this routine is now only used by the STAT3 logic and STAT3 support has
+** ended.  The code is kept here for historical reference only.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialType(Mem *pMem, int file_format, u32 *pLen){
   int flags = pMem->flags;
@@ -79932,6 +80960,7 @@
   *pLen = n;
   return ((n*2) + 12 + ((flags&MEM_Str)!=0));
 }
+#endif /* inlined into OP_MakeRecord */
 
 /*
 ** The sizes for serial types less than 128
@@ -80240,7 +81269,7 @@
   p = (UnpackedRecord *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pKeyInfo->db, nByte);
   if( !p ) return 0;
   p->aMem = (Mem*)&((char*)p)[ROUND8(sizeof(UnpackedRecord))];
-  assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
+  assert( pKeyInfo->aSortFlags!=0 );
   p->pKeyInfo = pKeyInfo;
   p->nField = pKeyInfo->nKeyField + 1;
   return p;
@@ -80339,7 +81368,7 @@
   if( szHdr1>98307 ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT;
   d1 = szHdr1;
   assert( pKeyInfo->nAllField>=pPKey2->nField || CORRUPT_DB );
-  assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
+  assert( pKeyInfo->aSortFlags!=0 );
   assert( pKeyInfo->nKeyField>0 );
   assert( idx1<=szHdr1 || CORRUPT_DB );
   do{
@@ -80370,7 +81399,12 @@
                            pKeyInfo->nAllField>i ? pKeyInfo->aColl[i] : 0);
     if( rc!=0 ){
       assert( mem1.szMalloc==0 );  /* See comment below */
-      if( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[i] ){
+      if( (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[i] & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL)
+       && ((mem1.flags & MEM_Null) || (pPKey2->aMem[i].flags & MEM_Null)) 
+      ){
+        rc = -rc;
+      }
+      if( pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[i] & KEYINFO_ORDER_DESC ){
         rc = -rc;  /* Invert the result for DESC sort order. */
       }
       goto debugCompareEnd;
@@ -80746,7 +81780,7 @@
   VVA_ONLY( mem1.szMalloc = 0; ) /* Only needed by assert() statements */
   assert( pPKey2->pKeyInfo->nAllField>=pPKey2->nField 
        || CORRUPT_DB );
-  assert( pPKey2->pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
+  assert( pPKey2->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags!=0 );
   assert( pPKey2->pKeyInfo->nKeyField>0 );
   assert( idx1<=szHdr1 || CORRUPT_DB );
   do{
@@ -80869,8 +81903,14 @@
     }
 
     if( rc!=0 ){
-      if( pPKey2->pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[i] ){
-        rc = -rc;
+      int sortFlags = pPKey2->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[i];
+      if( sortFlags ){
+        if( (sortFlags & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL)==0
+         || ((sortFlags & KEYINFO_ORDER_DESC)
+           !=(serial_type==0 || (pRhs->flags&MEM_Null)))
+        ){
+          rc = -rc;
+        }
       }
       assert( vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2, rc) );
       assert( mem1.szMalloc==0 );  /* See comment below */
@@ -81038,7 +82078,11 @@
     nCmp = MIN( pPKey2->aMem[0].n, nStr );
     res = memcmp(&aKey1[szHdr], pPKey2->aMem[0].z, nCmp);
 
-    if( res==0 ){
+    if( res>0 ){
+      res = pPKey2->r2;
+    }else if( res<0 ){
+      res = pPKey2->r1;
+    }else{
       res = nStr - pPKey2->aMem[0].n;
       if( res==0 ){
         if( pPKey2->nField>1 ){
@@ -81052,10 +82096,6 @@
       }else{
         res = pPKey2->r1;
       }
-    }else if( res>0 ){
-      res = pPKey2->r2;
-    }else{
-      res = pPKey2->r1;
     }
   }
 
@@ -81087,7 +82127,10 @@
   ** header size is (12*5 + 1 + 1) bytes.  */
   if( p->pKeyInfo->nAllField<=13 ){
     int flags = p->aMem[0].flags;
-    if( p->pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[0] ){
+    if( p->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0] ){
+      if( p->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0] & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL ){
+        return sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare;
+      }
       p->r1 = 1;
       p->r2 = -1;
     }else{
@@ -81336,13 +82379,25 @@
 ** features such as 'now'.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3NotPureFunc(sqlite3_context *pCtx){
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+  const VdbeOp *pOp;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( pCtx->pVdbe==0 ) return 1;
 #endif
-  if( pCtx->pVdbe->aOp[pCtx->iOp].opcode==OP_PureFunc ){
-    sqlite3_result_error(pCtx, 
-       "non-deterministic function in index expression or CHECK constraint",
-       -1);
+  pOp = pCtx->pVdbe->aOp + pCtx->iOp;
+  if( pOp->opcode==OP_PureFunc ){
+    const char *zContext;
+    char *zMsg;
+    if( pOp->p5 & NC_IsCheck ){
+      zContext = "a CHECK constraint";
+    }else if( pOp->p5 & NC_GenCol ){
+      zContext = "a generated column";
+    }else{
+      zContext = "an index";
+    }
+    zMsg = sqlite3_mprintf("non-deterministic use of %s() in %s",
+                           pCtx->pFunc->zName, zContext);
+    sqlite3_result_error(pCtx, zMsg, -1);
+    sqlite3_free(zMsg);
     return 0;
   }
   return 1;
@@ -81433,7 +82488,7 @@
   preupdate.keyinfo.db = db;
   preupdate.keyinfo.enc = ENC(db);
   preupdate.keyinfo.nKeyField = pTab->nCol;
-  preupdate.keyinfo.aSortOrder = (u8*)&fakeSortOrder;
+  preupdate.keyinfo.aSortFlags = (u8*)&fakeSortOrder;
   preupdate.iKey1 = iKey1;
   preupdate.iKey2 = iKey2;
   preupdate.pTab = pTab;
@@ -82302,7 +83357,7 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context *p){
   int rc;
-#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   sqlite3_int64 *piTime = &p->pVdbe->iCurrentTime;
   assert( p->pVdbe!=0 );
 #else
@@ -82367,7 +83422,7 @@
   AuxData *pAuxData;
 
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(pCtx->pOut->db->mutex) );
-#if SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#if SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( pCtx->pVdbe==0 ) return 0;
 #else
   assert( pCtx->pVdbe!=0 );
@@ -82401,7 +83456,7 @@
   Vdbe *pVdbe = pCtx->pVdbe;
 
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(pCtx->pOut->db->mutex) );
-#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4
   if( pVdbe==0 ) goto failed;
 #else
   assert( pVdbe!=0 );
@@ -83289,7 +84344,7 @@
     goto preupdate_old_out;
   }
   if( p->pPk ){
-    iIdx = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(p->pPk, iIdx);
+    iIdx = sqlite3TableColumnToIndex(p->pPk, iIdx);
   }
   if( iIdx>=p->pCsr->nField || iIdx<0 ){
     rc = SQLITE_RANGE;
@@ -83379,7 +84434,7 @@
     goto preupdate_new_out;
   }
   if( p->pPk && p->op!=SQLITE_UPDATE ){
-    iIdx = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(p->pPk, iIdx);
+    iIdx = sqlite3TableColumnToIndex(p->pPk, iIdx);
   }
   if( iIdx>=p->pCsr->nField || iIdx<0 ){
     rc = SQLITE_RANGE;
@@ -83827,6 +84882,26 @@
 # define UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(P)
 #endif
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/* This routine provides a convenient place to set a breakpoint during
+** tracing with PRAGMA vdbe_trace=on.  The breakpoint fires right after
+** each opcode is printed.  Variables "pc" (program counter) and pOp are
+** available to add conditionals to the breakpoint.  GDB example:
+**
+**         break test_trace_breakpoint if pc=22
+**
+** Other useful labels for breakpoints include:
+**   test_addop_breakpoint(pc,pOp)
+**   sqlite3CorruptError(lineno)
+**   sqlite3MisuseError(lineno)
+**   sqlite3CantopenError(lineno)
+*/
+static void test_trace_breakpoint(int pc, Op *pOp, Vdbe *v){
+  static int n = 0;
+  n++;
+}
+#endif
+
 /*
 ** Invoke the VDBE coverage callback, if that callback is defined.  This
 ** feature is used for test suite validation only and does not appear an
@@ -84053,6 +85128,7 @@
 **    Convert pRec to a text representation.
 **
 ** SQLITE_AFF_BLOB:
+** SQLITE_AFF_NONE:
 **    No-op.  pRec is unchanged.
 */
 static void applyAffinity(
@@ -84170,12 +85246,9 @@
 ** Write a nice string representation of the contents of cell pMem
 ** into buffer zBuf, length nBuf.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf){
-  char *zCsr = zBuf;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, StrAccum *pStr){
   int f = pMem->flags;
-
   static const char *const encnames[] = {"(X)", "(8)", "(16LE)", "(16BE)"};
-
   if( f&MEM_Blob ){
     int i;
     char c;
@@ -84191,55 +85264,40 @@
     }else{
       c = 's';
     }
-    *(zCsr++) = c;
-    sqlite3_snprintf(100, zCsr, "%d[", pMem->n);
-    zCsr += sqlite3Strlen30(zCsr);
-    for(i=0; i<16 && i<pMem->n; i++){
-      sqlite3_snprintf(100, zCsr, "%02X", ((int)pMem->z[i] & 0xFF));
-      zCsr += sqlite3Strlen30(zCsr);
-    }
-    for(i=0; i<16 && i<pMem->n; i++){
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, "%cx[", c);
+    for(i=0; i<25 && i<pMem->n; i++){
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, "%02X", ((int)pMem->z[i] & 0xFF));
+    }
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, "|");
+    for(i=0; i<25 && i<pMem->n; i++){
       char z = pMem->z[i];
-      if( z<32 || z>126 ) *zCsr++ = '.';
-      else *zCsr++ = z;
-    }
-    *(zCsr++) = ']';
+      sqlite3_str_appendchar(pStr, 1, (z<32||z>126)?'.':z);
+    }
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr,"]");
     if( f & MEM_Zero ){
-      sqlite3_snprintf(100, zCsr,"+%dz",pMem->u.nZero);
-      zCsr += sqlite3Strlen30(zCsr);
-    }
-    *zCsr = '\0';
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, "+%dz",pMem->u.nZero);
+    }
   }else if( f & MEM_Str ){
-    int j, k;
-    zBuf[0] = ' ';
+    int j;
+    u8 c;
     if( f & MEM_Dyn ){
-      zBuf[1] = 'z';
+      c = 'z';
       assert( (f & (MEM_Static|MEM_Ephem))==0 );
     }else if( f & MEM_Static ){
-      zBuf[1] = 't';
+      c = 't';
       assert( (f & (MEM_Dyn|MEM_Ephem))==0 );
     }else if( f & MEM_Ephem ){
-      zBuf[1] = 'e';
+      c = 'e';
       assert( (f & (MEM_Static|MEM_Dyn))==0 );
     }else{
-      zBuf[1] = 's';
-    }
-    k = 2;
-    sqlite3_snprintf(100, &zBuf[k], "%d", pMem->n);
-    k += sqlite3Strlen30(&zBuf[k]);
-    zBuf[k++] = '[';
-    for(j=0; j<15 && j<pMem->n; j++){
-      u8 c = pMem->z[j];
-      if( c>=0x20 && c<0x7f ){
-        zBuf[k++] = c;
-      }else{
-        zBuf[k++] = '.';
-      }
-    }
-    zBuf[k++] = ']';
-    sqlite3_snprintf(100,&zBuf[k], encnames[pMem->enc]);
-    k += sqlite3Strlen30(&zBuf[k]);
-    zBuf[k++] = 0;
+      c = 's';
+    }
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, " %c%d[", c, pMem->n);
+    for(j=0; j<25 && j<pMem->n; j++){
+      c = pMem->z[j];
+      sqlite3_str_appendchar(pStr, 1, (c>=0x20&&c<=0x7f) ? c : '.');
+    }
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, "]%s", encnames[pMem->enc]);
   }
 }
 #endif
@@ -84261,26 +85319,43 @@
     printf(" i:%lld", p->u.i);
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
   }else if( p->flags & MEM_Real ){
-    printf(" r:%g", p->u.r);
+    printf(" r:%.17g", p->u.r);
 #endif
   }else if( sqlite3VdbeMemIsRowSet(p) ){
     printf(" (rowset)");
   }else{
-    char zBuf[200];
-    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(p, zBuf);
-    printf(" %s", zBuf);
+    StrAccum acc;
+    char zBuf[1000];
+    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
+    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(p, &acc);
+    printf(" %s", sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
   }
   if( p->flags & MEM_Subtype ) printf(" subtype=0x%02x", p->eSubtype);
 }
 static void registerTrace(int iReg, Mem *p){
-  printf("REG[%d] = ", iReg);
+  printf("R[%d] = ", iReg);
   memTracePrint(p);
+  if( p->pScopyFrom ){
+    printf(" <== R[%d]", (int)(p->pScopyFrom - &p[-iReg]));
+  }
   printf("\n");
   sqlite3VdbeCheckMemInvariants(p);
 }
 #endif
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/*
+** Show the values of all registers in the virtual machine.  Used for
+** interactive debugging.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRegisterDump(Vdbe *v){
+  int i;
+  for(i=1; i<v->nMem; i++) registerTrace(i, v->aMem+i);
+}
+#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
+
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 #  define REGISTER_TRACE(R,M) if(db->flags&SQLITE_VdbeTrace)registerTrace(R,M)
 #else
 #  define REGISTER_TRACE(R,M)
@@ -84308,7 +85383,7 @@
 ******************************************************************************
 **
 ** This file contains inline asm code for retrieving "high-performance"
-** counters for x86 class CPUs.
+** counters for x86 and x86_64 class CPUs.
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_HWTIME_H
 #define SQLITE_HWTIME_H
@@ -84319,8 +85394,9 @@
 ** processor and returns that value.  This can be used for high-res
 ** profiling.
 */
-#if (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
-      (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
+#if !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && \
+    (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER)) && \
+    (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86))
 
   #if defined(__GNUC__)
 
@@ -84341,7 +85417,7 @@
 
   #endif
 
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__x86_64__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long val;
@@ -84349,7 +85425,7 @@
       return val;
   }
  
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
+#elif !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__) && (defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__ppc__))
 
   __inline__ sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){
       unsigned long long retval;
@@ -84366,14 +85442,13 @@
 
 #else
 
-  #error Need implementation of sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform.
-
   /*
-  ** To compile without implementing sqlite3Hwtime() for your platform,
-  ** you can remove the above #error and use the following
-  ** stub function.  You will lose timing support for many
-  ** of the debugging and testing utilities, but it should at
-  ** least compile and run.
+  ** asm() is needed for hardware timing support.  Without asm(),
+  ** disable the sqlite3Hwtime() routine.
+  **
+  ** sqlite3Hwtime() is only used for some obscure debugging
+  ** and analysis configurations, not in any deliverable, so this
+  ** should not be a great loss.
   */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite_uint64 sqlite3Hwtime(void){ return ((sqlite_uint64)0); }
 
@@ -84534,6 +85609,7 @@
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
     if( db->flags & SQLITE_VdbeTrace ){
       sqlite3VdbePrintOp(stdout, (int)(pOp - aOp), pOp);
+      test_trace_breakpoint((int)(pOp - aOp),pOp,p);
     }
 #endif
       
@@ -84641,6 +85717,20 @@
 ** to the current line should be indented for EXPLAIN output.
 */
 case OP_Goto: {             /* jump */
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  /* In debuggging mode, when the p5 flags is set on an OP_Goto, that
+  ** means we should really jump back to the preceeding OP_ReleaseReg
+  ** instruction. */
+  if( pOp->p5 ){
+    assert( pOp->p2 < (int)(pOp - aOp) );
+    assert( pOp->p2 > 1 );
+    pOp = &aOp[pOp->p2 - 2];
+    assert( pOp[1].opcode==OP_ReleaseReg );
+    goto check_for_interrupt;
+  }
+#endif
+
 jump_to_p2_and_check_for_interrupt:
   pOp = &aOp[pOp->p2 - 1];
 
@@ -84939,7 +86029,6 @@
 case OP_String8: {         /* same as TK_STRING, out2 */
   assert( pOp->p4.z!=0 );
   pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
-  pOp->opcode = OP_String;
   pOp->p1 = sqlite3Strlen30(pOp->p4.z);
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
@@ -84963,6 +86052,7 @@
   if( pOp->p1>db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH] ){
     goto too_big;
   }
+  pOp->opcode = OP_String;
   assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );
   /* Fall through to the next case, OP_String */
 }
@@ -85117,8 +86207,13 @@
     memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
     sqlite3VdbeMemMove(pOut, pIn1);
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
-    if( pOut->pScopyFrom>=&aMem[p1] && pOut->pScopyFrom<pOut ){
-      pOut->pScopyFrom += pOp->p2 - p1;
+    pIn1->pScopyFrom = 0;
+    { int i;
+      for(i=1; i<p->nMem; i++){
+        if( aMem[i].pScopyFrom==pIn1 ){
+          aMem[i].pScopyFrom = pOut;
+        }
+      }
     }
 #endif
     Deephemeralize(pOut);
@@ -85259,6 +86354,14 @@
             || (pMem[i].flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))==0 );
     sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate(&pMem[i]);
     REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1+i, &pMem[i]);
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+    /* The registers in the result will not be used again when the
+    ** prepared statement restarts.  This is because sqlite3_column()
+    ** APIs might have caused type conversions of made other changes to
+    ** the register values.  Therefore, we can go ahead and break any
+    ** OP_SCopy dependencies. */
+    pMem[i].pScopyFrom = 0;
+#endif
   }
   if( db->mallocFailed ) goto no_mem;
 
@@ -85266,6 +86369,7 @@
     db->xTrace(SQLITE_TRACE_ROW, db->pTraceArg, p, 0);
   }
 
+
   /* Return SQLITE_ROW
   */
   p->pc = (int)(pOp - aOp) + 1;
@@ -85630,6 +86734,7 @@
     testcase( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int );
     testcase( pIn1->flags & MEM_IntReal );
     sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
+    REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
   }
   break;
 }
@@ -85661,9 +86766,11 @@
   pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
   memAboutToChange(p, pIn1);
   rc = ExpandBlob(pIn1);
-  sqlite3VdbeMemCast(pIn1, pOp->p2, encoding);
+  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
+  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemCast(pIn1, pOp->p2, encoding);
+  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
   UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
-  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
+  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
   break;
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */
@@ -85822,12 +86929,7 @@
       if( (flags1 | flags3)&MEM_Str ){
         if( (flags1 & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal|MEM_Real|MEM_Str))==MEM_Str ){
           applyNumericAffinity(pIn1,0);
-          assert( flags3==pIn3->flags );
-          /* testcase( flags3!=pIn3->flags );
-          ** this used to be possible with pIn1==pIn3, but not since
-          ** the column cache was removed.  The following assignment
-          ** is essentially a no-op.  But, it provides defense-in-depth
-          ** in case our analysis is incorrect, so it is left in. */
+          testcase( flags3!=pIn3->flags );
           flags3 = pIn3->flags;
         }
         if( (flags3 & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal|MEM_Real|MEM_Str))==MEM_Str ){
@@ -85850,7 +86952,7 @@
         sqlite3VdbeMemStringify(pIn1, encoding, 1);
         testcase( (flags1&MEM_Dyn) != (pIn1->flags&MEM_Dyn) );
         flags1 = (pIn1->flags & ~MEM_TypeMask) | (flags1 & MEM_TypeMask);
-        assert( pIn1!=pIn3 );
+        if( pIn1==pIn3 ) flags3 = flags1 | MEM_Str;
       }
       if( (flags3 & MEM_Str)==0 && (flags3&(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_IntReal))!=0 ){
         testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_Int );
@@ -85885,10 +86987,10 @@
   }
 
   /* Undo any changes made by applyAffinity() to the input registers. */
+  assert( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags3 & MEM_Dyn) );
+  pIn3->flags = flags3;
   assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags1 & MEM_Dyn) );
   pIn1->flags = flags1;
-  assert( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags3 & MEM_Dyn) );
-  pIn3->flags = flags3;
 
   if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 ){
     pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
@@ -85924,16 +87026,31 @@
 
 /* Opcode: ElseNotEq * P2 * * *
 **
-** This opcode must immediately follow an OP_Lt or OP_Gt comparison operator.
-** If result of an OP_Eq comparison on the same two operands
-** would have be NULL or false (0), then then jump to P2. 
-** If the result of an OP_Eq comparison on the two previous operands
-** would have been true (1), then fall through.
+** This opcode must follow an OP_Lt or OP_Gt comparison operator.  There
+** can be zero or more OP_ReleaseReg opcodes intervening, but no other
+** opcodes are allowed to occur between this instruction and the previous
+** OP_Lt or OP_Gt.  Furthermore, the prior OP_Lt or OP_Gt must have the
+** SQLITE_STOREP2 bit set in the P5 field.
+**
+** If result of an OP_Eq comparison on the same two operands as the
+** prior OP_Lt or OP_Gt would have been NULL or false (0), then then
+** jump to P2.  If the result of an OP_Eq comparison on the two previous
+** operands would have been true (1), then fall through.
 */
 case OP_ElseNotEq: {       /* same as TK_ESCAPE, jump */
-  assert( pOp>aOp );
-  assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Lt || pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Gt );
-  assert( pOp[-1].p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 );
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  /* Verify the preconditions of this opcode - that it follows an OP_Lt or
+  ** OP_Gt with the SQLITE_STOREP2 flag set, with zero or more intervening
+  ** OP_ReleaseReg opcodes */
+  int iAddr;
+  for(iAddr = (int)(pOp - aOp) - 1; ALWAYS(iAddr>=0); iAddr--){
+    if( aOp[iAddr].opcode==OP_ReleaseReg ) continue;
+    assert( aOp[iAddr].opcode==OP_Lt || aOp[iAddr].opcode==OP_Gt );
+    assert( aOp[iAddr].p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 );
+    break;
+  }
+#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
   VdbeBranchTaken(iCompare!=0, 2);
   if( iCompare!=0 ) goto jump_to_p2;
   break;
@@ -86025,9 +87142,14 @@
     REGISTER_TRACE(p2+idx, &aMem[p2+idx]);
     assert( i<pKeyInfo->nKeyField );
     pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[i];
-    bRev = pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[i];
+    bRev = (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[i] & KEYINFO_ORDER_DESC);
     iCompare = sqlite3MemCompare(&aMem[p1+idx], &aMem[p2+idx], pColl);
     if( iCompare ){
+      if( (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[i] & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL) 
+       && ((aMem[p1+idx].flags & MEM_Null) || (aMem[p2+idx].flags & MEM_Null))
+      ){
+        iCompare = -iCompare;
+      }
       if( bRev ) iCompare = -iCompare;
       break;
     }
@@ -86318,11 +87440,6 @@
 ** if the P4 argument is a P4_MEM use the value of the P4 argument as
 ** the result.
 **
-** If the OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE bit is set on P5 and P1 is a pseudo-table cursor,
-** then the cache of the cursor is reset prior to extracting the column.
-** The first OP_Column against a pseudo-table after the value of the content
-** register has changed should have this bit set.
-**
 ** If the OPFLAG_LENGTHARG and OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG bits are set on P5 then
 ** the result is guaranteed to only be used as the argument of a length()
 ** or typeof() function, respectively.  The loading of large blobs can be
@@ -86344,7 +87461,9 @@
   u32 t;             /* A type code from the record header */
   Mem *pReg;         /* PseudoTable input register */
 
+  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
+  assert( pC!=0 );
   p2 = pOp->p2;
 
   /* If the cursor cache is stale (meaning it is not currently point at
@@ -86356,7 +87475,6 @@
   assert( pOp->p3>0 && pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor) );
   pDest = &aMem[pOp->p3];
   memAboutToChange(p, pDest);
-  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( p2<pC->nField );
   aOffset = pC->aOffset;
@@ -86567,10 +87685,11 @@
       **
       ** Although sqlite3VdbeSerialGet() may read at most 8 bytes from the
       ** buffer passed to it, debugging function VdbeMemPrettyPrint() may
-      ** read up to 16. So 16 bytes of bogus content is supplied.
+      ** read more.  Use the global constant sqlite3CtypeMap[] as the array,
+      ** as that array is 256 bytes long (plenty for VdbeMemPrettyPrint())
+      ** and it begins with a bunch of zeros.
       */
-      static u8 aZero[16];  /* This is the bogus content */
-      sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(aZero, t, pDest);
+      sqlite3VdbeSerialGet((u8*)sqlite3CtypeMap, t, pDest);
     }else{
       rc = sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(pC->uc.pCursor, aOffset[p2], len, pDest);
       if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -86611,15 +87730,27 @@
   assert( pOp->p2>0 );
   assert( zAffinity[pOp->p2]==0 );
   pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-  while( 1 /*edit-by-break*/ ){
+  while( 1 /*exit-by-break*/ ){
     assert( pIn1 <= &p->aMem[(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor)] );
-    assert( memIsValid(pIn1) );
+    assert( zAffinity[0]==SQLITE_AFF_NONE || memIsValid(pIn1) );
     applyAffinity(pIn1, zAffinity[0], encoding);
     if( zAffinity[0]==SQLITE_AFF_REAL && (pIn1->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 ){
-      /* When applying REAL affinity, if the result is still MEM_Int, 
-      ** indicate that REAL is actually desired */
-      pIn1->flags |= MEM_IntReal;
-      pIn1->flags &= ~MEM_Int;
+      /* When applying REAL affinity, if the result is still an MEM_Int
+      ** that will fit in 6 bytes, then change the type to MEM_IntReal
+      ** so that we keep the high-resolution integer value but know that
+      ** the type really wants to be REAL. */
+      testcase( pIn1->u.i==140737488355328LL );
+      testcase( pIn1->u.i==140737488355327LL );
+      testcase( pIn1->u.i==-140737488355328LL );
+      testcase( pIn1->u.i==-140737488355329LL );
+      if( pIn1->u.i<=140737488355327LL && pIn1->u.i>=-140737488355328LL ){
+        pIn1->flags |= MEM_IntReal;
+        pIn1->flags &= ~MEM_Int;
+      }else{
+        pIn1->u.r = (double)pIn1->u.i;
+        pIn1->flags |= MEM_Real;
+        pIn1->flags &= ~MEM_Int;
+      }
     }
     REGISTER_TRACE((int)(pIn1-aMem), pIn1);
     zAffinity++;
@@ -86726,14 +87857,36 @@
 #endif
 
   /* Loop through the elements that will make up the record to figure
-  ** out how much space is required for the new record.
+  ** out how much space is required for the new record.  After this loop,
+  ** the Mem.uTemp field of each term should hold the serial-type that will
+  ** be used for that term in the generated record:
+  **
+  **   Mem.uTemp value    type
+  **   ---------------    ---------------
+  **      0               NULL
+  **      1               1-byte signed integer
+  **      2               2-byte signed integer
+  **      3               3-byte signed integer
+  **      4               4-byte signed integer
+  **      5               6-byte signed integer
+  **      6               8-byte signed integer
+  **      7               IEEE float
+  **      8               Integer constant 0
+  **      9               Integer constant 1
+  **     10,11            reserved for expansion
+  **    N>=12 and even    BLOB
+  **    N>=13 and odd     text
+  **
+  ** The following additional values are computed:
+  **     nHdr        Number of bytes needed for the record header
+  **     nData       Number of bytes of data space needed for the record
+  **     nZero       Zero bytes at the end of the record
   */
   pRec = pLast;
   do{
     assert( memIsValid(pRec) );
-    serial_type = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pRec, file_format, &len);
-    if( pRec->flags & MEM_Zero ){
-      if( serial_type==0 ){
+    if( pRec->flags & MEM_Null ){
+      if( pRec->flags & MEM_Zero ){
         /* Values with MEM_Null and MEM_Zero are created by xColumn virtual
         ** table methods that never invoke sqlite3_result_xxxxx() while
         ** computing an unchanging column value in an UPDATE statement.
@@ -86741,19 +87894,83 @@
         ** so that they can be passed through to xUpdate and have
         ** a true sqlite3_value_nochange(). */
         assert( pOp->p5==OPFLAG_NOCHNG_MAGIC || CORRUPT_DB );
-        serial_type = 10;
-      }else if( nData ){
-        if( sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(pRec) ) goto no_mem;
-      }else{
-        nZero += pRec->u.nZero;
-        len -= pRec->u.nZero;
-      }
-    }
-    nData += len;
-    testcase( serial_type==127 );
-    testcase( serial_type==128 );
-    nHdr += serial_type<=127 ? 1 : sqlite3VarintLen(serial_type);
-    pRec->uTemp = serial_type;
+        pRec->uTemp = 10;
+      }else{
+        pRec->uTemp = 0;
+      }
+      nHdr++;
+    }else if( pRec->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal) ){
+      /* Figure out whether to use 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 bytes. */
+      i64 i = pRec->u.i;
+      u64 uu;
+      testcase( pRec->flags & MEM_Int );
+      testcase( pRec->flags & MEM_IntReal );
+      if( i<0 ){
+        uu = ~i;
+      }else{
+        uu = i;
+      }
+      nHdr++;
+      testcase( uu==127 );               testcase( uu==128 );
+      testcase( uu==32767 );             testcase( uu==32768 );
+      testcase( uu==8388607 );           testcase( uu==8388608 );
+      testcase( uu==2147483647 );        testcase( uu==2147483648 );
+      testcase( uu==140737488355327LL ); testcase( uu==140737488355328LL );
+      if( uu<=127 ){
+        if( (i&1)==i && file_format>=4 ){
+          pRec->uTemp = 8+(u32)uu;
+        }else{
+          nData++;
+          pRec->uTemp = 1;
+        }
+      }else if( uu<=32767 ){
+        nData += 2;
+        pRec->uTemp = 2;
+      }else if( uu<=8388607 ){
+        nData += 3;
+        pRec->uTemp = 3;
+      }else if( uu<=2147483647 ){
+        nData += 4;
+        pRec->uTemp = 4;
+      }else if( uu<=140737488355327LL ){
+        nData += 6;
+        pRec->uTemp = 5;
+      }else{
+        nData += 8;
+        if( pRec->flags & MEM_IntReal ){
+          /* If the value is IntReal and is going to take up 8 bytes to store
+          ** as an integer, then we might as well make it an 8-byte floating
+          ** point value */
+          pRec->u.r = (double)pRec->u.i;
+          pRec->flags &= ~MEM_IntReal;
+          pRec->flags |= MEM_Real;
+          pRec->uTemp = 7;
+        }else{
+          pRec->uTemp = 6;
+        }
+      }
+    }else if( pRec->flags & MEM_Real ){
+      nHdr++;
+      nData += 8;
+      pRec->uTemp = 7;
+    }else{
+      assert( db->mallocFailed || pRec->flags&(MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
+      assert( pRec->n>=0 );
+      len = (u32)pRec->n;
+      serial_type = (len*2) + 12 + ((pRec->flags & MEM_Str)!=0);
+      if( pRec->flags & MEM_Zero ){
+        serial_type += pRec->u.nZero*2;
+        if( nData ){
+          if( sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(pRec) ) goto no_mem;
+          len += pRec->u.nZero;
+        }else{
+          nZero += pRec->u.nZero;
+        }
+      }
+      nData += len;
+      nHdr += sqlite3VarintLen(serial_type);
+      pRec->uTemp = serial_type;
+    }
     if( pRec==pData0 ) break;
     pRec--;
   }while(1);
@@ -86840,11 +88057,11 @@
   pCrsr = p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->uc.pCursor;
   assert( pCrsr );
   nEntry = 0;  /* Not needed.  Only used to silence a warning. */
-  rc = sqlite3BtreeCount(pCrsr, &nEntry);
+  rc = sqlite3BtreeCount(db, pCrsr, &nEntry);
   if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
   pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
   pOut->u.i = nEntry;
-  break;
+  goto check_for_interrupt;
 }
 #endif
 
@@ -86961,8 +88178,12 @@
           p->rc = rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
           goto vdbe_return;
         }
-        db->isTransactionSavepoint = 0;
         rc = p->rc;
+        if( rc ){
+          db->autoCommit = 0;
+        }else{
+          db->isTransactionSavepoint = 0;
+        }
       }else{
         int isSchemaChange;
         iSavepoint = db->nSavepoint - iSavepoint - 1;
@@ -86990,6 +88211,7 @@
           db->mDbFlags |= DBFLAG_SchemaChange;
         }
       }
+      if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
   
       /* Regardless of whether this is a RELEASE or ROLLBACK, destroy all 
       ** savepoints nested inside of the savepoint being operated on. */
@@ -87072,7 +88294,6 @@
       p->rc = rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
       goto vdbe_return;
     }
-    assert( db->nStatement==0 );
     sqlite3CloseSavepoints(db);
     if( p->rc==SQLITE_OK ){
       rc = SQLITE_DONE;
@@ -87089,7 +88310,7 @@
     rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
     goto abort_due_to_error;
   }
-  break;
+  /*NOTREACHED*/ assert(0);
 }
 
 /* Opcode: Transaction P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
@@ -87153,7 +88374,8 @@
       goto abort_due_to_error;
     }
 
-    if( pOp->p2 && p->usesStmtJournal 
+    if( p->usesStmtJournal
+     && pOp->p2
      && (db->autoCommit==0 || db->nVdbeRead>1) 
     ){
       assert( sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(pBt) );
@@ -87485,6 +88707,7 @@
   VdbeCursor *pCx;      /* The new cursor */
 
   pOrig = p->apCsr[pOp->p2];
+  assert( pOrig );
   assert( pOrig->pBtx!=0 );  /* Only ephemeral cursors can be duplicated */
 
   pCx = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, pOrig->nField, -1, CURTYPE_BTREE);
@@ -87548,15 +88771,13 @@
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 );
   assert( pOp->p2>=0 );
   pCx = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
-  if( pCx ){
+  if( pCx && pCx->pBtx ){
     /* If the ephermeral table is already open, erase all existing content
     ** so that the table is empty again, rather than creating a new table. */
     assert( pCx->isEphemeral );
     pCx->seqCount = 0;
     pCx->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
-    if( pCx->pBtx ){
-      rc = sqlite3BtreeClearTable(pCx->pBtx, pCx->pgnoRoot, 0);
-    }
+    rc = sqlite3BtreeClearTable(pCx->pBtx, pCx->pgnoRoot, 0);
   }else{
     pCx = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, pOp->p2, -1, CURTYPE_BTREE);
     if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
@@ -87827,6 +89048,7 @@
   pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
   pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
   if( pC->isTable ){
+    u16 flags3, newType;
     /* The BTREE_SEEK_EQ flag is only set on index cursors */
     assert( sqlite3BtreeCursorHasHint(pC->uc.pCursor, BTREE_SEEK_EQ)==0
               || CORRUPT_DB );
@@ -87835,18 +89057,21 @@
     ** blob, or NULL.  But it needs to be an integer before we can do
     ** the seek, so convert it. */
     pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
-    if( (pIn3->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_IntReal|MEM_Str))==MEM_Str ){
+    flags3 = pIn3->flags;
+    if( (flags3 & (MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_IntReal|MEM_Str))==MEM_Str ){
       applyNumericAffinity(pIn3, 0);
     }
-    iKey = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn3);
+    iKey = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn3); /* Get the integer key value */
+    newType = pIn3->flags; /* Record the type after applying numeric affinity */
+    pIn3->flags = flags3;  /* But convert the type back to its original */
 
     /* If the P3 value could not be converted into an integer without
     ** loss of information, then special processing is required... */
-    if( (pIn3->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal))==0 ){
-      if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Real)==0 ){
-        if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Null) || oc>=OP_SeekGE ){
-          VdbeBranchTaken(1,2); goto jump_to_p2;
-          break;
+    if( (newType & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal))==0 ){
+      if( (newType & MEM_Real)==0 ){
+        if( (newType & MEM_Null) || oc>=OP_SeekGE ){
+          VdbeBranchTaken(1,2);
+          goto jump_to_p2;
         }else{
           rc = sqlite3BtreeLast(pC->uc.pCursor, &res);
           if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -87984,7 +89209,7 @@
 ** Synopsis: seekHit=P2
 **
 ** Set the seekHit flag on cursor P1 to the value in P2.
-** The seekHit flag is used by the IfNoHope opcode.
+* The seekHit flag is used by the IfNoHope opcode.
 **
 ** P1 must be a valid b-tree cursor.  P2 must be a boolean value,
 ** either 0 or 1.
@@ -87999,6 +89224,20 @@
   break;
 }
 
+/* Opcode: IfNotOpen P1 P2 * * *
+** Synopsis: if( !csr[P1] ) goto P2
+**
+** If cursor P1 is not open, jump to instruction P2. Otherwise, fall through.
+*/
+case OP_IfNotOpen: {        /* jump */
+  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
+  VdbeBranchTaken(p->apCsr[pOp->p1]==0, 2);
+  if( !p->apCsr[pOp->p1] ){
+    goto jump_to_p2_and_check_for_interrupt;
+  }
+  break;
+}
+
 /* Opcode: Found P1 P2 P3 P4 *
 ** Synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]
 **
@@ -88231,23 +89470,27 @@
   pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
   testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_Int );
   testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_IntReal );
+  testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_Real );
+  testcase( (pIn3->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Int))==MEM_Str );
   if( (pIn3->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_IntReal))==0 ){
-    /* Make sure pIn3->u.i contains a valid integer representation of
-    ** the key value, but do not change the datatype of the register, as
-    ** other parts of the perpared statement might be depending on the
-    ** current datatype. */
-    u16 origFlags = pIn3->flags;
-    int isNotInt;
-    applyAffinity(pIn3, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
-    isNotInt = (pIn3->flags & MEM_Int)==0;
-    pIn3->flags = origFlags;
-    if( isNotInt ) goto jump_to_p2;
+    /* If pIn3->u.i does not contain an integer, compute iKey as the
+    ** integer value of pIn3.  Jump to P2 if pIn3 cannot be converted
+    ** into an integer without loss of information.  Take care to avoid
+    ** changing the datatype of pIn3, however, as it is used by other
+    ** parts of the prepared statement. */
+    Mem x = pIn3[0];
+    applyAffinity(&x, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
+    if( (x.flags & MEM_Int)==0 ) goto jump_to_p2;
+    iKey = x.u.i;
+    goto notExistsWithKey;
   }
   /* Fall through into OP_NotExists */
 case OP_NotExists:          /* jump, in3 */
   pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
   assert( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 || pOp->opcode==OP_SeekRowid );
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
+  iKey = pIn3->u.i;
+notExistsWithKey:
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
   assert( pC!=0 );
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
@@ -88258,7 +89501,6 @@
   pCrsr = pC->uc.pCursor;
   assert( pCrsr!=0 );
   res = 0;
-  iKey = pIn3->u.i;
   rc = sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(pCrsr, 0, iKey, 0, &res);
   assert( rc==SQLITE_OK || res==0 );
   pC->movetoTarget = iKey;  /* Used by OP_Delete */
@@ -88484,6 +89726,7 @@
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
+  assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
   assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
   assert( (pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_ISNOOP) || pC->isTable );
   assert( pOp->p4type==P4_TABLE || pOp->p4type>=P4_STATIC );
@@ -88601,7 +89844,11 @@
   sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, pC);
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
-  if( pOp->p4type==P4_TABLE && HasRowid(pOp->p4.pTab) && pOp->p5==0 ){
+  if( pOp->p4type==P4_TABLE
+   && HasRowid(pOp->p4.pTab)
+   && pOp->p5==0
+   && sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValidNN(pC->uc.pCursor)
+  ){
     /* If p5 is zero, the seek operation that positioned the cursor prior to
     ** OP_Delete will have also set the pC->movetoTarget field to the rowid of
     ** the row that is being deleted */
@@ -89140,11 +90387,12 @@
   ** The Prev opcode is only used after SeekLT, SeekLE, and Last. */
   assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Next
        || pC->seekOp==OP_SeekGT || pC->seekOp==OP_SeekGE
-       || pC->seekOp==OP_Rewind || pC->seekOp==OP_Found 
-       || pC->seekOp==OP_NullRow|| pC->seekOp==OP_SeekRowid);
+       || pC->seekOp==OP_Rewind || pC->seekOp==OP_Found
+       || pC->seekOp==OP_NullRow|| pC->seekOp==OP_SeekRowid
+       || pC->seekOp==OP_IfNoHope);
   assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Prev
        || pC->seekOp==OP_SeekLT || pC->seekOp==OP_SeekLE
-       || pC->seekOp==OP_Last 
+       || pC->seekOp==OP_Last   || pC->seekOp==OP_IfNoHope
        || pC->seekOp==OP_NullRow);
 
   rc = pOp->p4.xAdvance(pC->uc.pCursor, pOp->p3);
@@ -89356,6 +90604,24 @@
   break;
 }
 
+/* Opcode: FinishSeek P1 * * * *
+** 
+** If cursor P1 was previously moved via OP_DeferredSeek, complete that
+** seek operation now, without further delay.  If the cursor seek has
+** already occurred, this instruction is a no-op.
+*/
+case OP_FinishSeek: {
+  VdbeCursor *pC;             /* The P1 index cursor */
+
+  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
+  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
+  if( pC->deferredMoveto ){
+    rc = sqlite3VdbeFinishMoveto(pC);
+    if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
+  }
+  break;
+}
+
 /* Opcode: IdxGE P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
 ** Synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]
 **
@@ -89663,7 +90929,7 @@
     initData.pzErrMsg = &p->zErrMsg;
     initData.mInitFlags = 0;
     zSql = sqlite3MPrintf(db,
-       "SELECT name, rootpage, sql FROM '%q'.%s WHERE %s ORDER BY rowid",
+       "SELECT*FROM\"%w\".%s WHERE %s ORDER BY rowid",
        db->aDb[iDb].zDbSName, zMaster, pOp->p4.z);
     if( zSql==0 ){
       rc = SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
@@ -89792,7 +91058,7 @@
   pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
   assert( pOp->p5<db->nDb );
   assert( DbMaskTest(p->btreeMask, pOp->p5) );
-  z = sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(db->aDb[pOp->p5].pBt, &aRoot[1], nRoot,
+  z = sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(db, db->aDb[pOp->p5].pBt, &aRoot[1], nRoot,
                                  (int)pnErr->u.i+1, &nErr);
   sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pIn1);
   if( nErr==0 ){
@@ -89805,7 +91071,7 @@
   }
   UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
   sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pIn1, encoding);
-  break;
+  goto check_for_interrupt;
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */
 
@@ -90662,6 +91928,36 @@
   break;
 }
 
+/* Opcode: CursorLock P1 * * * *
+**
+** Lock the btree to which cursor P1 is pointing so that the btree cannot be
+** written by an other cursor.
+*/
+case OP_CursorLock: {
+  VdbeCursor *pC;
+  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
+  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
+  assert( pC!=0 );
+  assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
+  sqlite3BtreeCursorPin(pC->uc.pCursor);
+  break;
+}
+
+/* Opcode: CursorUnlock P1 * * * *
+**
+** Unlock the btree to which cursor P1 is pointing so that it can be
+** written by other cursors.
+*/
+case OP_CursorUnlock: {
+  VdbeCursor *pC;
+  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
+  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
+  assert( pC!=0 );
+  assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
+  sqlite3BtreeCursorUnpin(pC->uc.pCursor);
+  break;
+}
+
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
 /* Opcode: TableLock P1 P2 P3 P4 *
 ** Synopsis: iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3
@@ -90906,7 +92202,7 @@
   assert( pModule->xColumn );
   memset(&sContext, 0, sizeof(sContext));
   sContext.pOut = pDest;
-  testcase( (pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_NOCHNG)==0 && pOp->p5!=0 );
+  assert( pOp->p5==OPFLAG_NOCHNG || pOp->p5==0 );
   if( pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_NOCHNG ){
     sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pDest);
     pDest->flags = MEM_Null|MEM_Zero;
@@ -91131,29 +92427,14 @@
 }
 #endif
 
-/* Opcode: Function0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
-** Synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])
-**
-** Invoke a user function (P4 is a pointer to a FuncDef object that
-** defines the function) with P5 arguments taken from register P2 and
-** successors.  The result of the function is stored in register P3.
-** Register P3 must not be one of the function inputs.
-**
-** P1 is a 32-bit bitmask indicating whether or not each argument to the 
-** function was determined to be constant at compile time. If the first
-** argument was constant then bit 0 of P1 is set. This is used to determine
-** whether meta data associated with a user function argument using the
-** sqlite3_set_auxdata() API may be safely retained until the next
-** invocation of this opcode.
-**
-** See also: Function, AggStep, AggFinal
-*/
-/* Opcode: Function P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
+/* Opcode: Function P1 P2 P3 P4 *
 ** Synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])
 **
 ** Invoke a user function (P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_context object that
-** contains a pointer to the function to be run) with P5 arguments taken
-** from register P2 and successors.  The result of the function is stored
+** contains a pointer to the function to be run) with arguments taken
+** from register P2 and successors.  The number of arguments is in
+** the sqlite3_context object that P4 points to.
+** The result of the function is stored
 ** in register P3.  Register P3 must not be one of the function inputs.
 **
 ** P1 is a 32-bit bitmask indicating whether or not each argument to the 
@@ -91163,40 +92444,35 @@
 ** sqlite3_set_auxdata() API may be safely retained until the next
 ** invocation of this opcode.
 **
-** SQL functions are initially coded as OP_Function0 with P4 pointing
-** to a FuncDef object.  But on first evaluation, the P4 operand is
-** automatically converted into an sqlite3_context object and the operation
-** changed to this OP_Function opcode.  In this way, the initialization of
-** the sqlite3_context object occurs only once, rather than once for each
-** evaluation of the function.
-**
-** See also: Function0, AggStep, AggFinal
-*/
-case OP_PureFunc0:              /* group */
-case OP_Function0: {            /* group */
-  int n;
-  sqlite3_context *pCtx;
-
-  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_FUNCDEF );
-  n = pOp->p5;
-  assert( pOp->p3>0 && pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor) );
-  assert( n==0 || (pOp->p2>0 && pOp->p2+n<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor)+1) );
-  assert( pOp->p3<pOp->p2 || pOp->p3>=pOp->p2+n );
-  pCtx = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, sizeof(*pCtx) + (n-1)*sizeof(sqlite3_value*));
-  if( pCtx==0 ) goto no_mem;
-  pCtx->pOut = 0;
-  pCtx->pFunc = pOp->p4.pFunc;
-  pCtx->iOp = (int)(pOp - aOp);
-  pCtx->pVdbe = p;
-  pCtx->isError = 0;
-  pCtx->argc = n;
-  pOp->p4type = P4_FUNCCTX;
-  pOp->p4.pCtx = pCtx;
-  assert( OP_PureFunc == OP_PureFunc0+2 );
-  assert( OP_Function == OP_Function0+2 );
-  pOp->opcode += 2;
-  /* Fall through into OP_Function */
-}
+** See also: AggStep, AggFinal, PureFunc
+*/
+/* Opcode: PureFunc P1 P2 P3 P4 *
+** Synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])
+**
+** Invoke a user function (P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_context object that
+** contains a pointer to the function to be run) with arguments taken
+** from register P2 and successors.  The number of arguments is in
+** the sqlite3_context object that P4 points to.
+** The result of the function is stored
+** in register P3.  Register P3 must not be one of the function inputs.
+**
+** P1 is a 32-bit bitmask indicating whether or not each argument to the 
+** function was determined to be constant at compile time. If the first
+** argument was constant then bit 0 of P1 is set. This is used to determine
+** whether meta data associated with a user function argument using the
+** sqlite3_set_auxdata() API may be safely retained until the next
+** invocation of this opcode.
+**
+** This opcode works exactly like OP_Function.  The only difference is in
+** its name.  This opcode is used in places where the function must be
+** purely non-deterministic.  Some built-in date/time functions can be
+** either determinitic of non-deterministic, depending on their arguments.
+** When those function are used in a non-deterministic way, they will check
+** to see if they were called using OP_PureFunc instead of OP_Function, and
+** if they were, they throw an error.
+**
+** See also: AggStep, AggFinal, Function
+*/
 case OP_PureFunc:              /* group */
 case OP_Function: {            /* group */
   int i;
@@ -91211,9 +92487,11 @@
   ** reinitializes the relavant parts of the sqlite3_context object */
   pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
   if( pCtx->pOut != pOut ){
+    pCtx->pVdbe = p;
     pCtx->pOut = pOut;
     for(i=pCtx->argc-1; i>=0; i--) pCtx->argv[i] = &aMem[pOp->p2+i];
   }
+  assert( pCtx->pVdbe==p );
 
   memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
@@ -91385,6 +92663,55 @@
 }
 #endif
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/* Opcode:  ReleaseReg   P1 P2 P3 * P5
+** Synopsis: release r[P1@P2] mask P3
+**
+** Release registers from service.  Any content that was in the
+** the registers is unreliable after this opcode completes.
+**
+** The registers released will be the P2 registers starting at P1,
+** except if bit ii of P3 set, then do not release register P1+ii.
+** In other words, P3 is a mask of registers to preserve.
+**
+** Releasing a register clears the Mem.pScopyFrom pointer.  That means
+** that if the content of the released register was set using OP_SCopy,
+** a change to the value of the source register for the OP_SCopy will no longer
+** generate an assertion fault in sqlite3VdbeMemAboutToChange().
+**
+** If P5 is set, then all released registers have their type set
+** to MEM_Undefined so that any subsequent attempt to read the released
+** register (before it is reinitialized) will generate an assertion fault.
+**
+** P5 ought to be set on every call to this opcode.
+** However, there are places in the code generator will release registers
+** before their are used, under the (valid) assumption that the registers
+** will not be reallocated for some other purpose before they are used and
+** hence are safe to release.
+**
+** This opcode is only available in testing and debugging builds.  It is
+** not generated for release builds.  The purpose of this opcode is to help
+** validate the generated bytecode.  This opcode does not actually contribute
+** to computing an answer.
+*/
+case OP_ReleaseReg: {
+  Mem *pMem;
+  int i;
+  u32 constMask;
+  assert( pOp->p1>0 );
+  assert( pOp->p1+pOp->p2<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor)+1 );
+  pMem = &aMem[pOp->p1];
+  constMask = pOp->p3;
+  for(i=0; i<pOp->p2; i++, pMem++){
+    if( i>=32 || (constMask & MASKBIT32(i))==0 ){
+      pMem->pScopyFrom = 0;
+      if( i<32 && pOp->p5 ) MemSetTypeFlag(pMem, MEM_Undefined);
+    }
+  }
+  break;
+}
+#endif
+
 /* Opcode: Noop * * * * *
 **
 ** Do nothing.  This instruction is often useful as a jump
@@ -91436,6 +92763,12 @@
       if( opProperty & OPFLG_OUT3 ){
         registerTrace(pOrigOp->p3, &aMem[pOrigOp->p3]);
       }
+      if( opProperty==0xff ){
+        /* Never happens.  This code exists to avoid a harmless linkage
+        ** warning aboud sqlite3VdbeRegisterDump() being defined but not
+        ** used. */
+        sqlite3VdbeRegisterDump(p);
+      }
     }
 #endif  /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
 #endif  /* NDEBUG */
@@ -91870,11 +93203,12 @@
   sqlite3 *db;
 
   if( p ){
+    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = p->pStmt;
     db = p->db;
     sqlite3_mutex_enter(db->mutex);
-    rc = sqlite3_finalize(p->pStmt);
     sqlite3DbFree(db, p);
     sqlite3_mutex_leave(db->mutex);
+    rc = sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
   }else{
     rc = SQLITE_OK;
   }
@@ -92854,7 +94188,8 @@
       );
     }
   }else{
-    if( pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[0] ){
+    assert( !(pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0]&KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL) );
+    if( pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0] ){
       res = res * -1;
     }
   }
@@ -92922,7 +94257,8 @@
           pTask, pbKey2Cached, pKey1, nKey1, pKey2, nKey2
       );
     }
-  }else if( pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[0] ){
+  }else if( pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0] ){
+    assert( !(pTask->pSorter->pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0]&KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL) );
     res = res * -1;
   }
 
@@ -93037,6 +94373,7 @@
 
     if( pKeyInfo->nAllField<13 
      && (pKeyInfo->aColl[0]==0 || pKeyInfo->aColl[0]==db->pDfltColl)
+     && (pKeyInfo->aSortFlags[0] & KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL)==0
     ){
       pSorter->typeMask = SORTER_TYPE_INTEGER | SORTER_TYPE_TEXT;
     }
@@ -93418,20 +94755,16 @@
 */
 static int vdbeSorterSort(SortSubtask *pTask, SorterList *pList){
   int i;
-  SorterRecord **aSlot;
   SorterRecord *p;
   int rc;
+  SorterRecord *aSlot[64];
 
   rc = vdbeSortAllocUnpacked(pTask);
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
 
   p = pList->pList;
   pTask->xCompare = vdbeSorterGetCompare(pTask->pSorter);
-
-  aSlot = (SorterRecord **)sqlite3MallocZero(64 * sizeof(SorterRecord *));
-  if( !aSlot ){
-    return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
-  }
+  memset(aSlot, 0, sizeof(aSlot));
 
   while( p ){
     SorterRecord *pNext;
@@ -93456,13 +94789,12 @@
   }
 
   p = 0;
-  for(i=0; i<64; i++){
+  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aSlot); i++){
     if( aSlot[i]==0 ) continue;
     p = p ? vdbeSorterMerge(pTask, p, aSlot[i]) : aSlot[i];
   }
   pList->pList = p;
 
-  sqlite3_free(aSlot);
   assert( pTask->pUnpacked->errCode==SQLITE_OK 
        || pTask->pUnpacked->errCode==SQLITE_NOMEM 
   );
@@ -93753,13 +95085,16 @@
       rc = vdbeSorterListToPMA(&pSorter->aTask[nWorker], &pSorter->list);
     }else{
       /* Launch a background thread for this operation */
-      u8 *aMem = pTask->list.aMemory;
-      void *pCtx = (void*)pTask;
-
+      u8 *aMem;
+      void *pCtx;
+
+      assert( pTask!=0 );
       assert( pTask->pThread==0 && pTask->bDone==0 );
       assert( pTask->list.pList==0 );
       assert( pTask->list.aMemory==0 || pSorter->list.aMemory!=0 );
 
+      aMem = pTask->list.aMemory;
+      pCtx = (void*)pTask;
       pSorter->iPrev = (u8)(pTask - pSorter->aTask);
       pTask->list = pSorter->list;
       pSorter->list.pList = 0;
@@ -94883,14 +96218,9 @@
   int iChunkOffset;
   FileChunk *pChunk;
 
-#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_ATOMIC_WRITE) \
- || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE)
   if( (iAmt+iOfst)>p->endpoint.iOffset ){
     return SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ;
   }
-#endif
-
-  assert( (iAmt+iOfst)<=p->endpoint.iOffset );
   assert( p->readpoint.iOffset==0 || p->readpoint.pChunk!=0 );
   if( p->readpoint.iOffset!=iOfst || iOfst==0 ){
     sqlite3_int64 iOff = 0;
@@ -95249,9 +96579,22 @@
 static int walkWindowList(Walker *pWalker, Window *pList){
   Window *pWin;
   for(pWin=pList; pWin; pWin=pWin->pNextWin){
-    if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pOrderBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
-    if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pPartition) ) return WRC_Abort;
-    if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pFilter) ) return WRC_Abort;
+    int rc;
+    rc = sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pOrderBy);
+    if( rc ) return WRC_Abort;
+    rc = sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pPartition);
+    if( rc ) return WRC_Abort;
+    rc = sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pFilter);
+    if( rc ) return WRC_Abort;
+
+    /* The next two are purely for calls to sqlite3RenameExprUnmap()
+    ** within sqlite3WindowOffsetExpr().  Because of constraints imposed
+    ** by sqlite3WindowOffsetExpr(), they can never fail.  The results do
+    ** not matter anyhow. */
+    rc = sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pStart);
+    if( NEVER(rc) ) return WRC_Abort;
+    rc = sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pEnd);
+    if( NEVER(rc) ) return WRC_Abort;
   }
   return WRC_Continue;
 }
@@ -95284,21 +96627,25 @@
     rc = pWalker->xExprCallback(pWalker, pExpr);
     if( rc ) return rc & WRC_Abort;
     if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr,(EP_TokenOnly|EP_Leaf)) ){
+      assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 || pExpr->pRight==0 );
       if( pExpr->pLeft && walkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pLeft) ) return WRC_Abort;
-       assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 || pExpr->pRight==0 );
       if( pExpr->pRight ){
+        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) );
         pExpr = pExpr->pRight;
         continue;
       }else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
+        assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) );
         if( sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect) ) return WRC_Abort;
-      }else if( pExpr->x.pList ){
-        if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->x.pList) ) return WRC_Abort;
-      }
+      }else{
+        if( pExpr->x.pList ){
+          if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->x.pList) ) return WRC_Abort;
+        }
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
-      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
-        if( walkWindowList(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin) ) return WRC_Abort;
-      }
-#endif
+        if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+          if( walkWindowList(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin) ) return WRC_Abort;
+        }
+#endif
+      }
     }
     break;
   }
@@ -95340,8 +96687,9 @@
   {
     Parse *pParse = pWalker->pParse;
     if( pParse && IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
+      /* The following may return WRC_Abort if there are unresolvable
+      ** symbols (e.g. a table that does not exist) in a window definition. */
       int rc = walkWindowList(pWalker, p->pWinDefn);
-      assert( rc==WRC_Continue );
       return rc;
     }
   }
@@ -95513,6 +96861,13 @@
       pExpr->u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pExpr->u.zToken);
       pExpr->flags |= EP_MemToken;
     }
+    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+      if( pExpr->y.pWin!=0 ){
+        pExpr->y.pWin->pOwner = pExpr;
+      }else{
+        assert( db->mallocFailed );
+      }
+    }
     sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup);
   }
   ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias);
@@ -95542,13 +96897,16 @@
 ** and zCol.  If any of zDb, zTab, and zCol are NULL then those fields will
 ** match anything.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MatchSpanName(
-  const char *zSpan,
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MatchEName(
+  const struct ExprList_item *pItem,
   const char *zCol,
   const char *zTab,
   const char *zDb
 ){
   int n;
+  const char *zSpan;
+  if( NEVER(pItem->eEName!=ENAME_TAB) ) return 0;
+  zSpan = pItem->zEName;
   for(n=0; ALWAYS(zSpan[n]) && zSpan[n]!='.'; n++){}
   if( zDb && (sqlite3StrNICmp(zSpan, zDb, n)!=0 || zDb[n]!=0) ){
     return 0;
@@ -95677,7 +97035,7 @@
           int hit = 0;
           pEList = pItem->pSelect->pEList;
           for(j=0; j<pEList->nExpr; j++){
-            if( sqlite3MatchSpanName(pEList->a[j].zSpan, zCol, zTab, zDb) ){
+            if( sqlite3MatchEName(&pEList->a[j], zCol, zTab, zDb) ){
               cnt++;
               cntTab = 2;
               pMatch = pItem;
@@ -95798,7 +97156,7 @@
           {
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
             if( iCol<0 ){
-              pExpr->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
+              pExpr->affExpr = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
             }else if( pExpr->iTable==0 ){
               testcase( iCol==31 );
               testcase( iCol==32 );
@@ -95824,13 +97182,13 @@
     if( cnt==0
      && cntTab==1
      && pMatch
-     && (pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr)==0
+     && (pNC->ncFlags & (NC_IdxExpr|NC_GenCol))==0
      && sqlite3IsRowid(zCol)
      && VisibleRowid(pMatch->pTab)
     ){
       cnt = 1;
       pExpr->iColumn = -1;
-      pExpr->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
+      pExpr->affExpr = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
     }
 
     /*
@@ -95858,8 +97216,10 @@
       pEList = pNC->uNC.pEList;
       assert( pEList!=0 );
       for(j=0; j<pEList->nExpr; j++){
-        char *zAs = pEList->a[j].zName;
-        if( zAs!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(zAs, zCol)==0 ){
+        char *zAs = pEList->a[j].zEName;
+        if( pEList->a[j].eEName==ENAME_NAME
+         && sqlite3_stricmp(zAs, zCol)==0
+        ){
           Expr *pOrig;
           assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
           assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 );
@@ -95869,7 +97229,9 @@
             sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "misuse of aliased aggregate %s", zAs);
             return WRC_Abort;
           }
-          if( (pNC->ncFlags&NC_AllowWin)==0 && ExprHasProperty(pOrig, EP_Win) ){
+          if( ExprHasProperty(pOrig, EP_Win)
+           && ((pNC->ncFlags&NC_AllowWin)==0 || pNC!=pTopNC )
+          ){
             sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "misuse of aliased window function %s",zAs);
             return WRC_Abort;
           }
@@ -95961,18 +97323,35 @@
 
   /* If a column from a table in pSrcList is referenced, then record
   ** this fact in the pSrcList.a[].colUsed bitmask.  Column 0 causes
-  ** bit 0 to be set.  Column 1 sets bit 1.  And so forth.  If the
-  ** column number is greater than the number of bits in the bitmask
-  ** then set the high-order bit of the bitmask.
+  ** bit 0 to be set.  Column 1 sets bit 1.  And so forth.  Bit 63 is
+  ** set if the 63rd or any subsequent column is used.
+  **
+  ** The colUsed mask is an optimization used to help determine if an
+  ** index is a covering index.  The correct answer is still obtained
+  ** if the mask contains extra set bits.  However, it is important to
+  ** avoid setting bits beyond the maximum column number of the table.
+  ** (See ticket [b92e5e8ec2cdbaa1]).
+  **
+  ** If a generated column is referenced, set bits for every column
+  ** of the table.
   */
   if( pExpr->iColumn>=0 && pMatch!=0 ){
     int n = pExpr->iColumn;
-    testcase( n==BMS-1 );
-    if( n>=BMS ){
-      n = BMS-1;
-    }
+    Table *pExTab = pExpr->y.pTab;
+    assert( pExTab!=0 );
     assert( pMatch->iCursor==pExpr->iTable );
-    pMatch->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<n;
+    if( (pExTab->tabFlags & TF_HasGenerated)!=0
+     && (pExTab->aCol[n].colFlags & COLFLAG_GENERATED)!=0 
+    ){
+      testcase( pExTab->nCol==BMS-1 );
+      testcase( pExTab->nCol==BMS );
+      pMatch->colUsed = pExTab->nCol>=BMS ? ALLBITS : MASKBIT(pExTab->nCol)-1;
+    }else{
+      testcase( n==BMS-1 );
+      testcase( n==BMS );
+      if( n>=BMS ) n = BMS-1;
+      pMatch->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<n;
+    }
   }
 
   /* Clean up and return
@@ -96011,15 +97390,23 @@
   Expr *p = sqlite3ExprAlloc(db, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
   if( p ){
     struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pSrc->a[iSrc];
-    p->y.pTab = pItem->pTab;
+    Table *pTab = p->y.pTab = pItem->pTab;
     p->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
     if( p->y.pTab->iPKey==iCol ){
       p->iColumn = -1;
     }else{
       p->iColumn = (ynVar)iCol;
-      testcase( iCol==BMS );
-      testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
-      pItem->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<(iCol>=BMS ? BMS-1 : iCol);
+      if( (pTab->tabFlags & TF_HasGenerated)!=0
+       && (pTab->aCol[iCol].colFlags & COLFLAG_GENERATED)!=0
+      ){
+        testcase( pTab->nCol==63 );
+        testcase( pTab->nCol==64 );
+        pItem->colUsed = pTab->nCol>=64 ? ALLBITS : MASKBIT(pTab->nCol)-1;
+      }else{
+        testcase( iCol==BMS );
+        testcase( iCol==BMS-1 );
+        pItem->colUsed |= ((Bitmask)1)<<(iCol>=BMS ? BMS-1 : iCol);
+      }
     }
   }
   return p;
@@ -96028,23 +97415,39 @@
 /*
 ** Report an error that an expression is not valid for some set of
 ** pNC->ncFlags values determined by validMask.
-*/
-static void notValid(
-  Parse *pParse,       /* Leave error message here */
-  NameContext *pNC,    /* The name context */
-  const char *zMsg,    /* Type of error */
-  int validMask        /* Set of contexts for which prohibited */
-){
-  assert( (validMask&~(NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr))==0 );
-  if( (pNC->ncFlags & validMask)!=0 ){
-    const char *zIn = "partial index WHERE clauses";
-    if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr )      zIn = "index expressions";
+**
+** static void notValid(
+**   Parse *pParse,       // Leave error message here
+**   NameContext *pNC,    // The name context 
+**   const char *zMsg,    // Type of error
+**   int validMask,       // Set of contexts for which prohibited
+**   Expr *pExpr          // Invalidate this expression on error
+** ){...}
+**
+** As an optimization, since the conditional is almost always false
+** (because errors are rare), the conditional is moved outside of the
+** function call using a macro.
+*/
+static void notValidImpl(
+   Parse *pParse,       /* Leave error message here */
+   NameContext *pNC,    /* The name context */
+   const char *zMsg,    /* Type of error */
+   Expr *pExpr          /* Invalidate this expression on error */
+){
+  const char *zIn = "partial index WHERE clauses";
+  if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr )      zIn = "index expressions";
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
-    else if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IsCheck ) zIn = "CHECK constraints";
-#endif
-    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%s prohibited in %s", zMsg, zIn);
-  }
-}
+  else if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IsCheck ) zIn = "CHECK constraints";
+#endif
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+  else if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_GenCol ) zIn = "generated columns";
+#endif
+  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%s prohibited in %s", zMsg, zIn);
+  if( pExpr ) pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
+}
+#define sqlite3ResolveNotValid(P,N,M,X,E) \
+  assert( ((X)&~(NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr|NC_GenCol))==0 ); \
+  if( ((N)->ncFlags & (X))!=0 ) notValidImpl(P,N,M,E);
 
 /*
 ** Expression p should encode a floating point value between 1.0 and 0.0.
@@ -96106,7 +97509,7 @@
       pExpr->y.pTab = pItem->pTab;
       pExpr->iTable = pItem->iCursor;
       pExpr->iColumn = -1;
-      pExpr->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
+      pExpr->affExpr = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
       break;
     }
 #endif /* defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT)
@@ -96133,7 +97536,10 @@
         zColumn = pExpr->u.zToken;
       }else{
         Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
-        notValid(pParse, pNC, "the \".\" operator", NC_IdxExpr);
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr );
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_GenCol );
+        sqlite3ResolveNotValid(pParse, pNC, "the \".\" operator",
+                               NC_IdxExpr|NC_GenCol, 0);
         pRight = pExpr->pRight;
         if( pRight->op==TK_ID ){
           zDb = 0;
@@ -96166,7 +97572,9 @@
       FuncDef *pDef;              /* Information about the function */
       u8 enc = ENC(pParse->db);   /* The database encoding */
       int savedAllowFlags = (pNC->ncFlags & (NC_AllowAgg | NC_AllowWin));
-
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+      Window *pWin = (IsWindowFunc(pExpr) ? pExpr->y.pWin : 0);
+#endif
       assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
       zId = pExpr->u.zToken;
       nId = sqlite3Strlen30(zId);
@@ -96220,24 +97628,39 @@
         if( pDef->funcFlags & (SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG) ){
           /* For the purposes of the EP_ConstFunc flag, date and time
           ** functions and other functions that change slowly are considered
-          ** constant because they are constant for the duration of one query */
+          ** constant because they are constant for the duration of one query.
+          ** This allows them to be factored out of inner loops. */
           ExprSetProperty(pExpr,EP_ConstFunc);
         }
         if( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT)==0 ){
-          /* Date/time functions that use 'now', and other functions like
+          /* Clearly non-deterministic functions like random(), but also
+          ** date/time functions that use 'now', and other functions like
           ** sqlite_version() that might change over time cannot be used
-          ** in an index. */
-          notValid(pParse, pNC, "non-deterministic functions",
-                   NC_IdxExpr|NC_PartIdx);
+          ** in an index or generated column.  Curiously, they can be used
+          ** in a CHECK constraint.  SQLServer, MySQL, and PostgreSQL all
+          ** all this. */
+          sqlite3ResolveNotValid(pParse, pNC, "non-deterministic functions",
+                                 NC_IdxExpr|NC_PartIdx|NC_GenCol, 0);
+        }else{
+          assert( (NC_SelfRef & 0xff)==NC_SelfRef ); /* Must fit in 8 bits */
+          pExpr->op2 = pNC->ncFlags & NC_SelfRef;
+          if( pNC->ncFlags & NC_FromDDL ) ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_FromDDL);
         }
         if( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_INTERNAL)!=0
          && pParse->nested==0
-         && sqlite3Config.bInternalFunctions==0
+         && (pParse->db->mDbFlags & DBFLAG_InternalFunc)==0
         ){
           /* Internal-use-only functions are disallowed unless the
-          ** SQL is being compiled using sqlite3NestedParse() */
+          ** SQL is being compiled using sqlite3NestedParse() or
+          ** the SQLITE_TESTCTRL_INTERNAL_FUNCTIONS test-control has be
+          ** used to activate internal functionsn for testing purposes */
           no_such_func = 1;
           pDef = 0;
+        }else
+        if( (pDef->funcFlags & (SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT|SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE))!=0
+         && !IN_RENAME_OBJECT
+        ){
+          sqlite3ExprFunctionUsable(pParse, pExpr, pDef);
         }
       }
 
@@ -96247,18 +97670,18 @@
           || (pDef->xValue==0 && pDef->xInverse==0)
           || (pDef->xValue && pDef->xInverse && pDef->xSFunc && pDef->xFinalize)
         );
-        if( pDef && pDef->xValue==0 && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+        if( pDef && pDef->xValue==0 && pWin ){
           sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
               "%.*s() may not be used as a window function", nId, zId
           );
           pNC->nErr++;
         }else if( 
               (is_agg && (pNC->ncFlags & NC_AllowAgg)==0)
-           || (is_agg && (pDef->funcFlags&SQLITE_FUNC_WINDOW) && !pExpr->y.pWin)
-           || (is_agg && pExpr->y.pWin && (pNC->ncFlags & NC_AllowWin)==0)
+           || (is_agg && (pDef->funcFlags&SQLITE_FUNC_WINDOW) && !pWin)
+           || (is_agg && pWin && (pNC->ncFlags & NC_AllowWin)==0)
         ){
           const char *zType;
-          if( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_WINDOW) || pExpr->y.pWin ){
+          if( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_WINDOW) || pWin ){
             zType = "window";
           }else{
             zType = "aggregate";
@@ -96286,34 +97709,44 @@
                nId, zId);
           pNC->nErr++;
         }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+        else if( is_agg==0 && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+          sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
+              "FILTER may not be used with non-aggregate %.*s()", 
+              nId, zId
+          );
+          pNC->nErr++;
+        }
+#endif
         if( is_agg ){
           /* Window functions may not be arguments of aggregate functions.
           ** Or arguments of other window functions. But aggregate functions
           ** may be arguments for window functions.  */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
-          pNC->ncFlags &= ~(NC_AllowWin | (!pExpr->y.pWin ? NC_AllowAgg : 0));
+          pNC->ncFlags &= ~(NC_AllowWin | (!pWin ? NC_AllowAgg : 0));
 #else
           pNC->ncFlags &= ~NC_AllowAgg;
 #endif
         }
       }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+      else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+        is_agg = 1;
+      }
+#endif
       sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pList);
       if( is_agg ){
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
-        if( pExpr->y.pWin ){
+        if( pWin ){
           Select *pSel = pNC->pWinSelect;
+          assert( pWin==pExpr->y.pWin );
           if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT==0 ){
-            sqlite3WindowUpdate(pParse, pSel->pWinDefn, pExpr->y.pWin, pDef);
-          }
-          sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin->pPartition);
-          sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin->pOrderBy);
-          sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin->pFilter);
-          if( 0==pSel->pWin 
-           || 0==sqlite3WindowCompare(pParse, pSel->pWin, pExpr->y.pWin) 
-          ){
-            pExpr->y.pWin->pNextWin = pSel->pWin;
-            pSel->pWin = pExpr->y.pWin;
-          }
+            sqlite3WindowUpdate(pParse, pSel ? pSel->pWinDefn : 0, pWin, pDef);
+          }
+          sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pPartition);
+          sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, pWin->pOrderBy);
+          sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pWin->pFilter);
+          sqlite3WindowLink(pSel, pWin);
           pNC->ncFlags |= NC_HasWin;
         }else
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC */
@@ -96321,12 +97754,17 @@
           NameContext *pNC2 = pNC;
           pExpr->op = TK_AGG_FUNCTION;
           pExpr->op2 = 0;
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+          if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+            sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->y.pWin->pFilter);
+          }
+#endif
           while( pNC2 && !sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc(pExpr, pNC2->pSrcList) ){
             pExpr->op2++;
             pNC2 = pNC2->pNext;
           }
-          assert( pDef!=0 );
-          if( pNC2 ){
+          assert( pDef!=0 || IN_RENAME_OBJECT );
+          if( pNC2 && pDef ){
             assert( SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX==NC_MinMaxAgg );
             testcase( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX)!=0 );
             pNC2->ncFlags |= NC_HasAgg | (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX);
@@ -96348,7 +97786,12 @@
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
       if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
         int nRef = pNC->nRef;
-        notValid(pParse, pNC, "subqueries", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IsCheck );
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_PartIdx );
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr );
+        testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_GenCol );
+        sqlite3ResolveNotValid(pParse, pNC, "subqueries",
+                 NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr|NC_GenCol, pExpr);
         sqlite3WalkSelect(pWalker, pExpr->x.pSelect);
         assert( pNC->nRef>=nRef );
         if( nRef!=pNC->nRef ){
@@ -96359,12 +97802,17 @@
       break;
     }
     case TK_VARIABLE: {
-      notValid(pParse, pNC, "parameters", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
+      testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IsCheck );
+      testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_PartIdx );
+      testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr );
+      testcase( pNC->ncFlags & NC_GenCol );
+      sqlite3ResolveNotValid(pParse, pNC, "parameters",
+               NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr|NC_GenCol, pExpr);
       break;
     }
     case TK_IS:
     case TK_ISNOT: {
-      Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pRight);
+      Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pExpr->pRight);
       assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Reduced) );
       /* Handle special cases of "x IS TRUE", "x IS FALSE", "x IS NOT TRUE",
       ** and "x IS NOT FALSE". */
@@ -96441,8 +97889,9 @@
   if( pE->op==TK_ID ){
     char *zCol = pE->u.zToken;
     for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
-      char *zAs = pEList->a[i].zName;
-      if( zAs!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(zAs, zCol)==0 ){
+      if( pEList->a[i].eEName==ENAME_NAME
+       && sqlite3_stricmp(pEList->a[i].zEName, zCol)==0
+      ){
         return i+1;
       }
     }
@@ -96575,7 +98024,7 @@
       int iCol = -1;
       Expr *pE, *pDup;
       if( pItem->done ) continue;
-      pE = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pItem->pExpr);
+      pE = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pItem->pExpr);
       if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE, &iCol) ){
         if( iCol<=0 || iCol>pEList->nExpr ){
           resolveOutOfRangeError(pParse, "ORDER", i+1, pEList->nExpr);
@@ -96669,7 +98118,7 @@
   ExprList *pEList;
   struct ExprList_item *pItem;
 
-  if( pOrderBy==0 || pParse->db->mallocFailed ) return 0;
+  if( pOrderBy==0 || pParse->db->mallocFailed || IN_RENAME_OBJECT ) return 0;
   if( pOrderBy->nExpr>db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN] ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many terms in %s BY clause", zType);
     return 1;
@@ -96691,17 +98140,13 @@
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
 /*
-** Walker callback for resolveRemoveWindows().
+** Walker callback for windowRemoveExprFromSelect().
 */
 static int resolveRemoveWindowsCb(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
+  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pWalker);
   if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
-    Window **pp;
-    for(pp=&pWalker->u.pSelect->pWin; *pp; pp=&(*pp)->pNextWin){
-      if( *pp==pExpr->y.pWin ){
-        *pp = (*pp)->pNextWin;
-        break;
-      }    
-    }
+    Window *pWin = pExpr->y.pWin;
+    sqlite3WindowUnlinkFromSelect(pWin);
   }
   return WRC_Continue;
 }
@@ -96710,16 +98155,18 @@
 ** Remove any Window objects owned by the expression pExpr from the
 ** Select.pWin list of Select object pSelect.
 */
-static void resolveRemoveWindows(Select *pSelect, Expr *pExpr){
-  Walker sWalker;
-  memset(&sWalker, 0, sizeof(Walker));
-  sWalker.xExprCallback = resolveRemoveWindowsCb;
-  sWalker.u.pSelect = pSelect;
-  sqlite3WalkExpr(&sWalker, pExpr);
-}
-#else
-# define resolveRemoveWindows(x,y)
-#endif
+static void windowRemoveExprFromSelect(Select *pSelect, Expr *pExpr){
+  if( pSelect->pWin ){
+    Walker sWalker;
+    memset(&sWalker, 0, sizeof(Walker));
+    sWalker.xExprCallback = resolveRemoveWindowsCb;
+    sWalker.u.pSelect = pSelect;
+    sqlite3WalkExpr(&sWalker, pExpr);
+  }
+}
+#else
+# define windowRemoveExprFromSelect(a, b)
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC */
 
 /*
 ** pOrderBy is an ORDER BY or GROUP BY clause in SELECT statement pSelect.
@@ -96756,7 +98203,7 @@
   pParse = pNC->pParse;
   for(i=0, pItem=pOrderBy->a; i<pOrderBy->nExpr; i++, pItem++){
     Expr *pE = pItem->pExpr;
-    Expr *pE2 = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pE);
+    Expr *pE2 = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pE);
     if( zType[0]!='G' ){
       iCol = resolveAsName(pParse, pSelect->pEList, pE2);
       if( iCol>0 ){
@@ -96790,7 +98237,7 @@
         /* Since this expresion is being changed into a reference
         ** to an identical expression in the result set, remove all Window
         ** objects belonging to the expression from the Select.pWin list. */
-        resolveRemoveWindows(pSelect, pE);
+        windowRemoveExprFromSelect(pSelect, pE);
         pItem->u.x.iOrderByCol = j+1;
       }
     }
@@ -97170,10 +98617,13 @@
 ** Resolve names in expressions that can only reference a single table
 ** or which cannot reference any tables at all.  Examples:
 **
-**    (1)   CHECK constraints
-**    (2)   WHERE clauses on partial indices
-**    (3)   Expressions in indexes on expressions
-**    (4)   Expression arguments to VACUUM INTO.
+**                                                    "type" flag
+**                                                    ------------
+**    (1)   CHECK constraints                         NC_IsCheck
+**    (2)   WHERE clauses on partial indices          NC_PartIdx
+**    (3)   Expressions in indexes on expressions     NC_IdxExpr
+**    (4)   Expression arguments to VACUUM INTO.      0
+**    (5)   GENERATED ALWAYS as expressions           NC_GenCol
 **
 ** In all cases except (4), the Expr.iTable value for Expr.op==TK_COLUMN
 ** nodes of the expression is set to -1 and the Expr.iColumn value is
@@ -97182,18 +98632,19 @@
 ** Any errors cause an error message to be set in pParse.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(
-  Parse *pParse,      /* Parsing context */
-  Table *pTab,        /* The table being referenced, or NULL */
-  int type,           /* NC_IsCheck or NC_PartIdx or NC_IdxExpr, or 0 */
-  Expr *pExpr,        /* Expression to resolve.  May be NULL. */
-  ExprList *pList     /* Expression list to resolve.  May be NULL. */
+  Parse *pParse,   /* Parsing context */
+  Table *pTab,     /* The table being referenced, or NULL */
+  int type,        /* NC_IsCheck, NC_PartIdx, NC_IdxExpr, NC_GenCol, or 0 */
+  Expr *pExpr,     /* Expression to resolve.  May be NULL. */
+  ExprList *pList  /* Expression list to resolve.  May be NULL. */
 ){
   SrcList sSrc;                   /* Fake SrcList for pParse->pNewTable */
   NameContext sNC;                /* Name context for pParse->pNewTable */
   int rc;
 
   assert( type==0 || pTab!=0 );
-  assert( type==NC_IsCheck || type==NC_PartIdx || type==NC_IdxExpr || pTab==0 );
+  assert( type==NC_IsCheck || type==NC_PartIdx || type==NC_IdxExpr
+          || type==NC_GenCol || pTab==0 );
   memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
   memset(&sSrc, 0, sizeof(sSrc));
   if( pTab ){
@@ -97201,6 +98652,11 @@
     sSrc.a[0].zName = pTab->zName;
     sSrc.a[0].pTab = pTab;
     sSrc.a[0].iCursor = -1;
+    if( pTab->pSchema!=pParse->db->aDb[1].pSchema ){
+      /* Cause EP_FromDDL to be set on TK_FUNCTION nodes of non-TEMP
+      ** schema elements */
+      type |= NC_FromDDL;
+    }
   }
   sNC.pParse = pParse;
   sNC.pSrcList = &sSrc;
@@ -97258,7 +98714,6 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
   int op;
-  if( pExpr->flags & EP_Generic ) return 0;
   while( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Skip) ){
     assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
     pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
@@ -97285,7 +98740,10 @@
         pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr
     );
   }
-  return pExpr->affinity;
+  if( op==TK_VECTOR ){
+    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr);
+  }
+  return pExpr->affExpr;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -97320,10 +98778,22 @@
 }
 
 /*
-** Skip over any TK_COLLATE operators and any unlikely()
-** or likelihood() function at the root of an expression.
+** Skip over any TK_COLLATE operators.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr *pExpr){
+  while( pExpr && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Skip) ){
+    assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
+    pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
+  }   
+  return pExpr;
+}
+
+/*
+** Skip over any TK_COLLATE operators and/or any unlikely()
+** or likelihood() or likely() functions at the root of an
+** expression.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(Expr *pExpr){
   while( pExpr && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Skip|EP_Unlikely) ){
     if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Unlikely) ){
       assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
@@ -97358,7 +98828,6 @@
   Expr *p = pExpr;
   while( p ){
     int op = p->op;
-    if( p->flags & EP_Generic ) break;
     if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = p->op2;
     if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN || op==TK_TRIGGER)
      && p->y.pTab!=0
@@ -97376,6 +98845,10 @@
       p = p->pLeft;
       continue;
     }
+    if( op==TK_VECTOR ){
+      p = p->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
+      continue;
+    }
     if( op==TK_COLLATE ){
       pColl = sqlite3GetCollSeq(pParse, ENC(db), 0, p->u.zToken);
       break;
@@ -97387,12 +98860,12 @@
         Expr *pNext  = p->pRight;
         /* The Expr.x union is never used at the same time as Expr.pRight */
         assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
-        /* p->flags holds EP_Collate and p->pLeft->flags does not.  And
-        ** p->x.pSelect cannot.  So if p->x.pLeft exists, it must hold at
-        ** least one EP_Collate. Thus the following two ALWAYS. */
-        if( p->x.pList!=0 && ALWAYS(!ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect)) ){
+        if( p->x.pList!=0 
+         && !db->mallocFailed
+         && ALWAYS(!ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect))
+        ){
           int i;
-          for(i=0; ALWAYS(i<p->x.pList->nExpr); i++){
+          for(i=0; i<p->x.pList->nExpr; i++){
             if( ExprHasProperty(p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, EP_Collate) ){
               pNext = p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
               break;
@@ -97444,7 +98917,7 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2){
   char aff1 = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr);
-  if( aff1 && aff2 ){
+  if( aff1>SQLITE_AFF_NONE && aff2>SQLITE_AFF_NONE ){
     /* Both sides of the comparison are columns. If one has numeric
     ** affinity, use that. Otherwise use no affinity.
     */
@@ -97453,15 +98926,10 @@
     }else{
       return SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
     }
-  }else if( !aff1 && !aff2 ){
-    /* Neither side of the comparison is a column.  Compare the
-    ** results directly.
-    */
-    return SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
   }else{
     /* One side is a column, the other is not. Use the columns affinity. */
-    assert( aff1==0 || aff2==0 );
-    return (aff1 + aff2);
+    assert( aff1<=SQLITE_AFF_NONE || aff2<=SQLITE_AFF_NONE );
+    return (aff1<=SQLITE_AFF_NONE ? aff2 : aff1) | SQLITE_AFF_NONE;
   }
 }
 
@@ -97494,14 +98962,13 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity){
   char aff = comparisonAffinity(pExpr);
-  switch( aff ){
-    case SQLITE_AFF_BLOB:
-      return 1;
-    case SQLITE_AFF_TEXT:
-      return idx_affinity==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT;
-    default:
-      return sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(idx_affinity);
-  }
+  if( aff<SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ){
+    return 1;
+  }
+  if( aff==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ){
+    return idx_affinity==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT;
+  }
+  return sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(idx_affinity);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -97546,6 +99013,22 @@
   return pColl;
 }
 
+/* Expresssion p is a comparison operator.  Return a collation sequence
+** appropriate for the comparison operator.
+**
+** This is normally just a wrapper around sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq().
+** However, if the OP_Commuted flag is set, then the order of the operands
+** is reversed in the sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq() call so that the
+** correct collating sequence is found.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCompareCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *p){
+  if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Commuted) ){
+    return sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, p->pRight, p->pLeft);
+  }else{
+    return sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, p->pLeft, p->pRight);
+  }
+}
+
 /*
 ** Generate code for a comparison operator.
 */
@@ -97556,13 +99039,19 @@
   int opcode,       /* The comparison opcode */
   int in1, int in2, /* Register holding operands */
   int dest,         /* Jump here if true.  */
-  int jumpIfNull    /* If true, jump if either operand is NULL */
+  int jumpIfNull,   /* If true, jump if either operand is NULL */
+  int isCommuted    /* The comparison has been commuted */
 ){
   int p5;
   int addr;
   CollSeq *p4;
 
-  p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
+  if( pParse->nErr ) return 0;
+  if( isCommuted ){
+    p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pRight, pLeft);
+  }else{
+    p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
+  }
   p5 = binaryCompareP5(pLeft, pRight, jumpIfNull);
   addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(pParse->pVdbe, opcode, in2, dest, in1,
                            (void*)p4, P4_COLLSEQ);
@@ -97773,7 +99262,9 @@
   int regRight = 0;
   u8 opx = op;
   int addrDone = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(pParse);
-
+  int isCommuted = ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_Commuted);
+
+  if( pParse->nErr ) return;
   if( nLeft!=sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pRight) ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
     return;
@@ -97802,7 +99293,7 @@
     assert( i>=0 && i<nLeft );
     r1 = exprVectorRegister(pParse, pLeft, i, regLeft, &pL, &regFree1);
     r2 = exprVectorRegister(pParse, pRight, i, regRight, &pR, &regFree2);
-    codeCompare(pParse, pL, pR, opx, r1, r2, dest, p5);
+    codeCompare(pParse, pL, pR, opx, r1, r2, dest, p5, isCommuted);
     testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
     testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
     testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
@@ -98112,10 +99603,12 @@
     return pRight;
   }else if( pRight==0 ){
     return pLeft;
-  }else if( ExprAlwaysFalse(pLeft) || ExprAlwaysFalse(pRight) ){
-    sqlite3ExprUnmapAndDelete(pParse, pLeft);
-    sqlite3ExprUnmapAndDelete(pParse, pRight);
-    return sqlite3ExprAlloc(db, TK_INTEGER, &sqlite3IntTokens[0], 0);
+  }else if( (ExprAlwaysFalse(pLeft) || ExprAlwaysFalse(pRight)) 
+         && !IN_RENAME_OBJECT
+  ){
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLeft);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pRight);
+    return sqlite3Expr(db, TK_INTEGER, "0");
   }else{
     return sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_AND, pLeft, pRight);
   }
@@ -98151,6 +99644,40 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Check to see if a function is usable according to current access
+** rules:
+**
+**    SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT    -     Only usable from top-level SQL
+**
+**    SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE    -     Usable if TRUSTED_SCHEMA or from
+**                                top-level SQL
+**
+** If the function is not usable, create an error.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprFunctionUsable(
+  Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing and code generating context */
+  Expr *pExpr,           /* The function invocation */
+  FuncDef *pDef          /* The function being invoked */
+){
+  assert( !IN_RENAME_OBJECT );
+  assert( (pDef->funcFlags & (SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT|SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE))!=0 );
+  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromDDL) ){
+    if( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT)!=0
+     || (pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_TrustedSchema)==0
+    ){
+      /* Functions prohibited in triggers and views if:
+      **     (1) tagged with SQLITE_DIRECTONLY
+      **     (2) not tagged with SQLITE_INNOCUOUS (which means it
+      **         is tagged with SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE) and 
+      **         SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA is off (meaning
+      **         that the schema is possibly tainted).
+      */
+      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unsafe use of %s()", pDef->zName);
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+/*
 ** Assign a variable number to an expression that encodes a wildcard
 ** in the original SQL statement.  
 **
@@ -98254,15 +99781,18 @@
     assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
     if( p->pLeft && p->op!=TK_SELECT_COLUMN ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pLeft);
     if( p->pRight ){
+      assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_WinFunc) );
       sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pRight);
     }else if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){
+      assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_WinFunc) );
       sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);
     }else{
       sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);
-    }
-    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_WinFunc) ){
-      assert( p->op==TK_FUNCTION );
-      sqlite3WindowDelete(db, p->y.pWin);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+      if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_WinFunc) ){
+        sqlite3WindowDelete(db, p->y.pWin);
+      }
+#endif
     }
   }
   if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) ) sqlite3DbFree(db, p->u.zToken);
@@ -98298,16 +99828,6 @@
 }
 
 /*
-** Copy the complete content of an Expr node, taking care not to read
-** past the end of the structure for a reduced-size version of the source
-** Expr.
-*/
-static void exprNodeCopy(Expr *pDest, Expr *pSrc){
-  memset(pDest, 0, sizeof(Expr));
-  memcpy(pDest, pSrc, exprStructSize(pSrc));
-}
-
-/*
 ** The dupedExpr*Size() routines each return the number of bytes required
 ** to store a copy of an expression or expression tree.  They differ in
 ** how much of the tree is measured.
@@ -98546,10 +100066,13 @@
 ** objects found there, assembling them onto the linked list at Select->pWin.
 */
 static int gatherSelectWindowsCallback(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
-  if( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION && pExpr->y.pWin!=0 ){
-    assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) );
-    pExpr->y.pWin->pNextWin = pWalker->u.pSelect->pWin;
-    pWalker->u.pSelect->pWin = pExpr->y.pWin;
+  if( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION && ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+    Select *pSelect = pWalker->u.pSelect;
+    Window *pWin = pExpr->y.pWin;
+    assert( pWin );
+    assert( IsWindowFunc(pExpr) );
+    assert( pWin->ppThis==0 );
+    sqlite3WindowLink(pSelect, pWin);
   }
   return WRC_Continue;
 }
@@ -98621,11 +100144,11 @@
         pNewExpr->pLeft = pPriorSelectCol;
       }
     }
-    pItem->zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pOldItem->zName);
-    pItem->zSpan = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pOldItem->zSpan);
-    pItem->sortOrder = pOldItem->sortOrder;
+    pItem->zEName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pOldItem->zEName);
+    pItem->sortFlags = pOldItem->sortFlags;
+    pItem->eEName = pOldItem->eEName;
     pItem->done = 0;
-    pItem->bSpanIsTab = pOldItem->bSpanIsTab;
+    pItem->bNulls = pOldItem->bNulls;
     pItem->bSorterRef = pOldItem->bSorterRef;
     pItem->u = pOldItem->u;
   }
@@ -98735,7 +100258,7 @@
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
     pNew->pWin = 0;
     pNew->pWinDefn = sqlite3WindowListDup(db, p->pWinDefn);
-    if( p->pWin ) gatherSelectWindows(pNew);
+    if( p->pWin && db->mallocFailed==0 ) gatherSelectWindows(pNew);
 #endif
     pNew->selId = p->selId;
     *pp = pNew;
@@ -98792,9 +100315,9 @@
     pList = pNew;
   }
   pItem = &pList->a[pList->nExpr++];
-  assert( offsetof(struct ExprList_item,zName)==sizeof(pItem->pExpr) );
+  assert( offsetof(struct ExprList_item,zEName)==sizeof(pItem->pExpr) );
   assert( offsetof(struct ExprList_item,pExpr)==0 );
-  memset(&pItem->zName,0,sizeof(*pItem)-offsetof(struct ExprList_item,zName));
+  memset(&pItem->zEName,0,sizeof(*pItem)-offsetof(struct ExprList_item,zEName));
   pItem->pExpr = pExpr;
   return pList;
 
@@ -98844,10 +100367,14 @@
 
   for(i=0; i<pColumns->nId; i++){
     Expr *pSubExpr = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr, i);
+    assert( pSubExpr!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
+    assert( pSubExpr==0 || pSubExpr->iTable==0 );
+    if( pSubExpr==0 ) continue;
+    pSubExpr->iTable = pColumns->nId;
     pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pList, pSubExpr);
     if( pList ){
       assert( pList->nExpr==iFirst+i+1 );
-      pList->a[pList->nExpr-1].zName = pColumns->a[i].zName;
+      pList->a[pList->nExpr-1].zEName = pColumns->a[i].zName;
       pColumns->a[i].zName = 0;
     }
   }
@@ -98876,19 +100403,38 @@
 /*
 ** Set the sort order for the last element on the given ExprList.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList *p, int iSortOrder){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList *p, int iSortOrder, int eNulls){
+  struct ExprList_item *pItem;
   if( p==0 ) return;
-  assert( SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED<0 && SQLITE_SO_ASC>=0 && SQLITE_SO_DESC>0 );
   assert( p->nExpr>0 );
-  if( iSortOrder<0 ){
-    assert( p->a[p->nExpr-1].sortOrder==SQLITE_SO_ASC );
-    return;
-  }
-  p->a[p->nExpr-1].sortOrder = (u8)iSortOrder;
-}
-
-/*
-** Set the ExprList.a[].zName element of the most recently added item
+
+  assert( SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED<0 && SQLITE_SO_ASC==0 && SQLITE_SO_DESC>0 );
+  assert( iSortOrder==SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED 
+       || iSortOrder==SQLITE_SO_ASC 
+       || iSortOrder==SQLITE_SO_DESC 
+  );
+  assert( eNulls==SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED 
+       || eNulls==SQLITE_SO_ASC 
+       || eNulls==SQLITE_SO_DESC 
+  );
+
+  pItem = &p->a[p->nExpr-1];
+  assert( pItem->bNulls==0 );
+  if( iSortOrder==SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED ){
+    iSortOrder = SQLITE_SO_ASC;
+  }
+  pItem->sortFlags = (u8)iSortOrder;
+
+  if( eNulls!=SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED ){
+    pItem->bNulls = 1;
+    if( iSortOrder!=eNulls ){
+      pItem->sortFlags |= KEYINFO_ORDER_BIGNULL;
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+/*
+** Set the ExprList.a[].zEName element of the most recently added item
 ** on the expression list.
 **
 ** pList might be NULL following an OOM error.  But pName should never be
@@ -98906,11 +100452,12 @@
     struct ExprList_item *pItem;
     assert( pList->nExpr>0 );
     pItem = &pList->a[pList->nExpr-1];
-    assert( pItem->zName==0 );
-    pItem->zName = sqlite3DbStrNDup(pParse->db, pName->z, pName->n);
-    if( dequote ) sqlite3Dequote(pItem->zName);
+    assert( pItem->zEName==0 );
+    assert( pItem->eEName==ENAME_NAME );
+    pItem->zEName = sqlite3DbStrNDup(pParse->db, pName->z, pName->n);
+    if( dequote ) sqlite3Dequote(pItem->zEName);
     if( IN_RENAME_OBJECT ){
-      sqlite3RenameTokenMap(pParse, (void*)pItem->zName, pName);
+      sqlite3RenameTokenMap(pParse, (void*)pItem->zEName, pName);
     }
   }
 }
@@ -98934,8 +100481,10 @@
   if( pList ){
     struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pList->a[pList->nExpr-1];
     assert( pList->nExpr>0 );
-    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zSpan);
-    pItem->zSpan = sqlite3DbSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);
+    if( pItem->zEName==0 ){
+      pItem->zEName = sqlite3DbSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);
+      pItem->eEName = ENAME_SPAN;
+    }
   }
 }
 
@@ -98965,8 +100514,7 @@
   assert( pList->nExpr>0 );
   do{
     sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pItem->pExpr);
-    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zName);
-    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zSpan);
+    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zEName);
     pItem++;
   }while( --i>0 );
   sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, pList);
@@ -99005,18 +100553,33 @@
 }
 
 /*
+** Check the input string to see if it is "true" or "false" (in any case).
+**
+**       If the string is....           Return
+**         "true"                         EP_IsTrue
+**         "false"                        EP_IsFalse
+**         anything else                  0
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3IsTrueOrFalse(const char *zIn){
+  if( sqlite3StrICmp(zIn, "true")==0  ) return EP_IsTrue;
+  if( sqlite3StrICmp(zIn, "false")==0 ) return EP_IsFalse;
+  return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
 ** If the input expression is an ID with the name "true" or "false"
 ** then convert it into an TK_TRUEFALSE term.  Return non-zero if
 ** the conversion happened, and zero if the expression is unaltered.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIdToTrueFalse(Expr *pExpr){
+  u32 v;
   assert( pExpr->op==TK_ID || pExpr->op==TK_STRING );
   if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Quoted)
-   && (sqlite3StrICmp(pExpr->u.zToken, "true")==0
-       || sqlite3StrICmp(pExpr->u.zToken, "false")==0)
+   && (v = sqlite3IsTrueOrFalse(pExpr->u.zToken))!=0
   ){
     pExpr->op = TK_TRUEFALSE;
-    ExprSetProperty(pExpr, pExpr->u.zToken[4]==0 ? EP_IsTrue : EP_IsFalse);
+    ExprSetProperty(pExpr, v);
     return 1;
   }
   return 0;
@@ -99078,10 +100641,11 @@
 ** In all cases, the callbacks set Walker.eCode=0 and abort if the expression
 ** is found to not be a constant.
 **
-** The sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction() is used for evaluating expressions
-** in a CREATE TABLE statement.  The Walker.eCode value is 5 when parsing
-** an existing schema and 4 when processing a new statement.  A bound
-** parameter raises an error for new statements, but is silently converted
+** The sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction() is used for evaluating DEFAULT
+** expressions in a CREATE TABLE statement.  The Walker.eCode value is 5
+** when parsing an existing schema out of the sqlite_master table and 4
+** when processing a new CREATE TABLE statement.  A bound parameter raises
+** an error for new statements, but is silently converted
 ** to NULL for existing schemas.  This allows sqlite_master tables that 
 ** contain a bound parameter because they were generated by older versions
 ** of SQLite to be parsed by newer versions of SQLite without raising a
@@ -99102,7 +100666,10 @@
     ** and either pWalker->eCode==4 or 5 or the function has the
     ** SQLITE_FUNC_CONST flag. */
     case TK_FUNCTION:
-      if( pWalker->eCode>=4 || ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_ConstFunc) ){
+      if( (pWalker->eCode>=4 || ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_ConstFunc))
+       && !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc)
+      ){
+        if( pWalker->eCode==5 ) ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_FromDDL);
         return WRC_Continue;
       }else{
         pWalker->eCode = 0;
@@ -99266,9 +100833,21 @@
 }
 
 /*
-** Walk an expression tree.  Return non-zero if the expression is constant
-** or a function call with constant arguments.  Return and 0 if there
-** are any variables.
+** Walk an expression tree for the DEFAULT field of a column definition
+** in a CREATE TABLE statement.  Return non-zero if the expression is 
+** acceptable for use as a DEFAULT.  That is to say, return non-zero if
+** the expression is constant or a function call with constant arguments.
+** Return and 0 if there are any variables.
+**
+** isInit is true when parsing from sqlite_master.  isInit is false when
+** processing a new CREATE TABLE statement.  When isInit is true, parameters
+** (such as ? or $abc) in the expression are converted into NULL.  When
+** isInit is false, parameters raise an error.  Parameters should not be
+** allowed in a CREATE TABLE statement, but some legacy versions of SQLite
+** allowed it, so we need to support it when reading sqlite_master for
+** backwards compatibility.
+**
+** If isInit is true, set EP_FromDDL on every TK_FUNCTION node.
 **
 ** For the purposes of this function, a double-quoted string (ex: "abc")
 ** is considered a variable but a single-quoted string (ex: 'abc') is
@@ -99365,7 +100944,9 @@
     case TK_COLUMN:
       return ExprHasProperty(p, EP_CanBeNull) ||
              p->y.pTab==0 ||  /* Reference to column of index on expression */
-             (p->iColumn>=0 && p->y.pTab->aCol[p->iColumn].notNull==0);
+             (p->iColumn>=0
+              && ALWAYS(p->y.pTab->aCol!=0) /* Defense against OOM problems */
+              && p->y.pTab->aCol[p->iColumn].notNull==0);
     default:
       return 1;
   }
@@ -99383,27 +100964,30 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr *p, char aff){
   u8 op;
+  int unaryMinus = 0;
   if( aff==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ) return 1;
-  while( p->op==TK_UPLUS || p->op==TK_UMINUS ){ p = p->pLeft; }
+  while( p->op==TK_UPLUS || p->op==TK_UMINUS ){
+    if( p->op==TK_UMINUS ) unaryMinus = 1;
+    p = p->pLeft;
+  }
   op = p->op;
   if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = p->op2;
   switch( op ){
     case TK_INTEGER: {
-      return aff==SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER || aff==SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
+      return aff>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
     }
     case TK_FLOAT: {
-      return aff==SQLITE_AFF_REAL || aff==SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
+      return aff>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
     }
     case TK_STRING: {
-      return aff==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT;
+      return !unaryMinus && aff==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT;
     }
     case TK_BLOB: {
-      return 1;
+      return !unaryMinus;
     }
     case TK_COLUMN: {
       assert( p->iTable>=0 );  /* p cannot be part of a CHECK constraint */
-      return p->iColumn<0
-          && (aff==SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER || aff==SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC);
+      return aff>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC && p->iColumn<0;
     }
     default: {
       return 0;
@@ -99586,7 +101170,7 @@
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindInIndex(
   Parse *pParse,             /* Parsing context */
-  Expr *pX,                  /* The right-hand side (RHS) of the IN operator */
+  Expr *pX,                  /* The IN expression */
   u32 inFlags,               /* IN_INDEX_LOOP, _MEMBERSHIP, and/or _NOOP_OK */
   int *prRhsHasNull,         /* Register holding NULL status.  See notes */
   int *aiMap,                /* Mapping from Index fields to RHS fields */
@@ -99839,8 +101423,10 @@
 **   "sub-select returns N columns - expected M"
 */   
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SubselectError(Parse *pParse, int nActual, int nExpect){
-  const char *zFmt = "sub-select returns %d columns - expected %d";
-  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, zFmt, nActual, nExpect);
+  if( pParse->nErr==0 ){
+    const char *zFmt = "sub-select returns %d columns - expected %d";
+    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, zFmt, nActual, nExpect);
+  }
 }
 #endif
 
@@ -100011,9 +101597,9 @@
     int i;
     ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
     struct ExprList_item *pItem;
-    int r1, r2, r3;
+    int r1, r2;
     affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);
-    if( !affinity ){
+    if( affinity<=SQLITE_AFF_NONE ){
       affinity = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
     }
     if( pKeyInfo ){
@@ -100039,9 +101625,9 @@
       }
 
       /* Evaluate the expression and insert it into the temp table */
-      r3 = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pE2, r1);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, r3, 1, r2, &affinity, 1);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iTab, r2, r3, 1);
+      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pE2, r1);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, r1, 1, r2, &affinity, 1);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iTab, r2, r1, 1);
     }
     sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
     sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
@@ -100054,6 +101640,7 @@
     /* Subroutine return */
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Return, pExpr->y.sub.regReturn);
     sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, pExpr->y.sub.iAddr-1, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)-1);
+    sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
   }
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */
@@ -100067,7 +101654,7 @@
 **
 ** The pExpr parameter is the SELECT or EXISTS operator to be coded.
 **
-** The register that holds the result.  For a multi-column SELECT, 
+** Return the register that holds the result.  For a multi-column SELECT, 
 ** the result is stored in a contiguous array of registers and the
 ** return value is the register of the left-most result column.
 ** Return 0 if an error occurs.
@@ -100145,11 +101732,21 @@
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
     VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
   }
-  pLimit = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER,&sqlite3IntTokens[1], 0);
   if( pSel->pLimit ){
-    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit->pLeft);
+    /* The subquery already has a limit.  If the pre-existing limit is X
+    ** then make the new limit X<>0 so that the new limit is either 1 or 0 */
+    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
+    pLimit = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_INTEGER, "0");
+    if( pLimit ){
+      pLimit->affExpr = SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
+      pLimit = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NE,
+                            sqlite3ExprDup(db, pSel->pLimit->pLeft, 0), pLimit);
+    }
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pSel->pLimit->pLeft);
     pSel->pLimit->pLeft = pLimit;
   }else{
+    /* If there is no pre-existing limit add a limit of 1 */
+    pLimit = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER, "1");
     pSel->pLimit = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_LIMIT, pLimit, 0);
   }
   pSel->iLimit = 0;
@@ -100164,6 +101761,7 @@
     /* Subroutine return */
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Return, pExpr->y.sub.regReturn);
     sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, pExpr->y.sub.iAddr-1, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)-1);
+    sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
   }
 
   return rReg;
@@ -100311,29 +101909,43 @@
     int r2, regToFree;
     int regCkNull = 0;
     int ii;
+    int bLhsReal;  /* True if the LHS of the IN has REAL affinity */
     assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
     if( destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
       regCkNull = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, rLhs, rLhs, regCkNull);
     }
+    bLhsReal = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft)==SQLITE_AFF_REAL;
     for(ii=0; ii<pList->nExpr; ii++){
-      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
+      if( bLhsReal ){
+        r2 = regToFree = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
+        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, r2);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, r2, 1, 0, "E", P4_STATIC);
+      }else{
+        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
+      }
       if( regCkNull && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pList->a[ii].pExpr) ){
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, regCkNull, r2, regCkNull);
       }
+      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regToFree);
       if( ii<pList->nExpr-1 || destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Eq, rLhs, labelOk, r2,
+        int op = rLhs!=r2 ? OP_Eq : OP_NotNull;
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, op, rLhs, labelOk, r2,
                           (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ);
-        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii<pList->nExpr-1);
-        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii==pList->nExpr-1);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii<pList->nExpr-1 && op==OP_Eq);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii==pList->nExpr-1 && op==OP_Eq);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii<pList->nExpr-1 && op==OP_NotNull);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii==pList->nExpr-1 && op==OP_NotNull);
         sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, zAff[0]);
       }else{
+        int op = rLhs!=r2 ? OP_Ne : OP_IsNull;
         assert( destIfNull==destIfFalse );
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Ne, rLhs, destIfFalse, r2,
-                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ); VdbeCoverage(v);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, op, rLhs, destIfFalse, r2,
+                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Ne);
+        VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IsNull);
         sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, zAff[0] | SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
       }
-      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regToFree);
     }
     if( regCkNull ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regCkNull, destIfNull); VdbeCoverage(v);
@@ -100353,6 +101965,7 @@
   }else{
     destStep2 = destStep6 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(pParse);
   }
+  if( pParse->nErr ) goto sqlite3ExprCodeIN_finished;
   for(i=0; i<nVector; i++){
     Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pExpr->pLeft, i);
     if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(p) ){
@@ -100534,16 +102147,45 @@
   }
 }
 
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+/*
+** Generate code that will compute the value of generated column pCol
+** and store the result in register regOut
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGeneratedColumn(
+  Parse *pParse,
+  Column *pCol,
+  int regOut
+){
+  int iAddr;
+  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+  assert( v!=0 );
+  assert( pParse->iSelfTab!=0 );
+  if( pParse->iSelfTab>0 ){
+    iAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IfNullRow, pParse->iSelfTab-1, 0, regOut);
+  }else{
+    iAddr = 0;
+  }
+  sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pCol->pDflt, regOut);
+  if( pCol->affinity>=SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ){
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, regOut, 1, 0, &pCol->affinity, 1);
+  }
+  if( iAddr ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
+}
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS */
+
 /*
 ** Generate code to extract the value of the iCol-th column of a table.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(
-  Vdbe *v,        /* The VDBE under construction */
+  Vdbe *v,        /* Parsing context */
   Table *pTab,    /* The table containing the value */
   int iTabCur,    /* The table cursor.  Or the PK cursor for WITHOUT ROWID */
   int iCol,       /* Index of the column to extract */
   int regOut      /* Extract the value into this register */
 ){
+  Column *pCol;
+  assert( v!=0 );
   if( pTab==0 ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iTabCur, iCol, regOut);
     return;
@@ -100551,14 +102193,36 @@
   if( iCol<0 || iCol==pTab->iPKey ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iTabCur, regOut);
   }else{
-    int op = IsVirtual(pTab) ? OP_VColumn : OP_Column;
-    int x = iCol;
-    if( !HasRowid(pTab) && !IsVirtual(pTab) ){
-      x = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab), iCol);
+    int op;
+    int x;
+    if( IsVirtual(pTab) ){
+      op = OP_VColumn;
+      x = iCol;
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+    }else if( (pCol = &pTab->aCol[iCol])->colFlags & COLFLAG_VIRTUAL ){
+      Parse *pParse = sqlite3VdbeParser(v);
+      if( pCol->colFlags & COLFLAG_BUSY ){
+        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "generated column loop on \"%s\"", pCol->zName);
+      }else{
+        int savedSelfTab = pParse->iSelfTab;
+        pCol->colFlags |= COLFLAG_BUSY;
+        pParse->iSelfTab = iTabCur+1;
+        sqlite3ExprCodeGeneratedColumn(pParse, pCol, regOut);
+        pParse->iSelfTab = savedSelfTab;
+        pCol->colFlags &= ~COLFLAG_BUSY;
+      }
+      return;
+#endif
+    }else if( !HasRowid(pTab) ){
+      testcase( iCol!=sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(pTab, iCol) );
+      x = sqlite3TableColumnToIndex(sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab), iCol);
+      op = OP_Column;
+    }else{
+      x = sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(pTab,iCol);
+      testcase( x!=iCol );
+      op = OP_Column;
     }
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, iTabCur, x, regOut);
-  }
-  if( iCol>=0 ){
     sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, iCol, regOut);
   }
 }
@@ -100578,11 +102242,11 @@
   int iReg,        /* Store results here */
   u8 p5            /* P5 value for OP_Column + FLAGS */
 ){
-  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
-  assert( v!=0 );
-  sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTable, iColumn, iReg);
+  assert( pParse->pVdbe!=0 );
+  sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(pParse->pVdbe, pTab, iTable, iColumn, iReg);
   if( p5 ){
-    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, p5);
+    VdbeOp *pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(pParse->pVdbe,-1);
+    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Column ) pOp->p5 = p5;
   }
   return iReg;
 }
@@ -100592,7 +102256,6 @@
 ** over to iTo..iTo+nReg-1.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeMove(Parse *pParse, int iFrom, int iTo, int nReg){
-  assert( iFrom>=iTo+nReg || iFrom+nReg<=iTo );
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(pParse->pVdbe, OP_Move, iFrom, iTo, nReg);
 }
 
@@ -100602,7 +102265,7 @@
 ** the correct value for the expression.
 */
 static void exprToRegister(Expr *pExpr, int iReg){
-  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
+  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pExpr);
   p->op2 = p->op;
   p->op = TK_REGISTER;
   p->iTable = iReg;
@@ -100644,6 +102307,109 @@
   return iResult;
 }
 
+/*
+** Generate code to implement special SQL functions that are implemented
+** in-line rather than by using the usual callbacks.
+*/
+static int exprCodeInlineFunction(
+  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
+  ExprList *pFarg,      /* List of function arguments */
+  int iFuncId,          /* Function ID.  One of the INTFUNC_... values */
+  int target            /* Store function result in this register */
+){
+  int nFarg;
+  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+  assert( v!=0 );
+  assert( pFarg!=0 );
+  nFarg = pFarg->nExpr;
+  assert( nFarg>0 );  /* All in-line functions have at least one argument */
+  switch( iFuncId ){
+    case INLINEFUNC_coalesce: {
+      /* Attempt a direct implementation of the built-in COALESCE() and
+      ** IFNULL() functions.  This avoids unnecessary evaluation of
+      ** arguments past the first non-NULL argument.
+      */
+      int endCoalesce = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(pParse);
+      int i;
+      assert( nFarg>=2 );
+      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pFarg->a[0].pExpr, target);
+      for(i=1; i<nFarg; i++){
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NotNull, target, endCoalesce);
+        VdbeCoverage(v);
+        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pFarg->a[i].pExpr, target);
+      }
+      if( sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, -1)->opcode==OP_Copy ){
+        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);  /* Tag trailing OP_Copy as not mergable */
+      }
+      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, endCoalesce);
+      break;
+    }
+
+    default: {   
+      /* The UNLIKELY() function is a no-op.  The result is the value
+      ** of the first argument.
+      */
+      assert( nFarg==1 || nFarg==2 );
+      target = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pFarg->a[0].pExpr, target);
+      break;
+    }
+
+  /***********************************************************************
+  ** Test-only SQL functions that are only usable if enabled
+  ** via SQLITE_TESTCTRL_INTERNAL_FUNCTIONS
+  */
+    case INLINEFUNC_expr_compare: {
+      /* Compare two expressions using sqlite3ExprCompare() */
+      assert( nFarg==2 );
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 
+         sqlite3ExprCompare(0,pFarg->a[0].pExpr, pFarg->a[1].pExpr,-1),
+         target);
+      break;
+    }
+
+    case INLINEFUNC_expr_implies_expr: {
+      /* Compare two expressions using sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr() */
+      assert( nFarg==2 );
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 
+         sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(pParse,pFarg->a[0].pExpr, pFarg->a[1].pExpr,-1),
+         target);
+      break;
+    }
+
+    case INLINEFUNC_implies_nonnull_row: {
+      /* REsult of sqlite3ExprImpliesNonNullRow() */
+      Expr *pA1;
+      assert( nFarg==2 );
+      pA1 = pFarg->a[1].pExpr;
+      if( pA1->op==TK_COLUMN ){
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 
+           sqlite3ExprImpliesNonNullRow(pFarg->a[0].pExpr,pA1->iTable),
+           target);
+      }else{
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+    case INLINEFUNC_affinity: {
+      /* The AFFINITY() function evaluates to a string that describes
+      ** the type affinity of the argument.  This is used for testing of
+      ** the SQLite type logic.
+      */
+      const char *azAff[] = { "blob", "text", "numeric", "integer", "real" };
+      char aff;
+      assert( nFarg==1 );
+      aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pFarg->a[0].pExpr);
+      sqlite3VdbeLoadString(v, target, 
+              (aff<=SQLITE_AFF_NONE) ? "none" : azAff[aff-SQLITE_AFF_BLOB]);
+      break;
+    }
+#endif
+  }
+  return target;
+}
+
 
 /*
 ** Generate code into the current Vdbe to evaluate the given
@@ -100694,6 +102460,7 @@
     }
     case TK_COLUMN: {
       int iTab = pExpr->iTable;
+      int iReg;
       if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FixedCol) ){
         /* This COLUMN expression is really a constant due to WHERE clause
         ** constraints, and that constant is coded by the pExpr->pLeft
@@ -100701,9 +102468,14 @@
         ** datatype by applying the Affinity of the table column to the
         ** constant.
         */
-        int iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,target);
-        int aff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->y.pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
-        if( aff!=SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
+        int aff;
+        iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,target);
+        if( pExpr->y.pTab ){
+          aff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->y.pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
+        }else{
+          aff = pExpr->affExpr;
+        }
+        if( aff>SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
           static const char zAff[] = "B\000C\000D\000E";
           assert( SQLITE_AFF_BLOB=='A' );
           assert( SQLITE_AFF_TEXT=='B' );
@@ -100718,17 +102490,60 @@
       }
       if( iTab<0 ){
         if( pParse->iSelfTab<0 ){
-          /* Generating CHECK constraints or inserting into partial index */
-          return pExpr->iColumn - pParse->iSelfTab;
+          /* Other columns in the same row for CHECK constraints or
+          ** generated columns or for inserting into partial index.
+          ** The row is unpacked into registers beginning at
+          ** 0-(pParse->iSelfTab).  The rowid (if any) is in a register
+          ** immediately prior to the first column.
+          */
+          Column *pCol;
+          Table *pTab = pExpr->y.pTab;
+          int iSrc;
+          int iCol = pExpr->iColumn;
+          assert( pTab!=0 );
+          assert( iCol>=XN_ROWID );
+          assert( iCol<pTab->nCol );
+          if( iCol<0 ){
+            return -1-pParse->iSelfTab;
+          }
+          pCol = pTab->aCol + iCol;
+          testcase( iCol!=sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(pTab,iCol) );
+          iSrc = sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(pTab, iCol) - pParse->iSelfTab;
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS
+          if( pCol->colFlags & COLFLAG_GENERATED ){
+            if( pCol->colFlags & COLFLAG_BUSY ){
+              sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "generated column loop on \"%s\"",
+                              pCol->zName);
+              return 0;
+            }
+            pCol->colFlags |= COLFLAG_BUSY;
+            if( pCol->colFlags & COLFLAG_NOTAVAIL ){
+              sqlite3ExprCodeGeneratedColumn(pParse, pCol, iSrc);
+            }
+            pCol->colFlags &= ~(COLFLAG_BUSY|COLFLAG_NOTAVAIL);
+            return iSrc;
+          }else
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_GENERATED_COLUMNS */
+          if( pCol->affinity==SQLITE_AFF_REAL ){
+            sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, iSrc, target);
+            sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_RealAffinity, target);
+            return target;
+          }else{
+            return iSrc;
+          }
         }else{
           /* Coding an expression that is part of an index where column names
           ** in the index refer to the table to which the index belongs */
           iTab = pParse->iSelfTab - 1;
         }
       }
-      return sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(pParse, pExpr->y.pTab,
+      iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(pParse, pExpr->y.pTab,
                                pExpr->iColumn, iTab, target,
                                pExpr->op2);
+      if( pExpr->y.pTab==0 && pExpr->affExpr==SQLITE_AFF_REAL ){
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_RealAffinity, iReg);
+      }
+      return iReg;
     }
     case TK_INTEGER: {
       codeInteger(pParse, pExpr, 0, target);
@@ -100750,7 +102565,12 @@
       sqlite3VdbeLoadString(v, target, pExpr->u.zToken);
       return target;
     }
-    case TK_NULL: {
+    default: {
+      /* Make NULL the default case so that if a bug causes an illegal
+      ** Expr node to be passed into this function, it will be handled
+      ** sanely and not crash.  But keep the assert() to bring the problem
+      ** to the attention of the developers. */
+      assert( op==TK_NULL );
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
       return target;
     }
@@ -100777,7 +102597,7 @@
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Variable, pExpr->iColumn, target);
       if( pExpr->u.zToken[1]!=0 ){
         const char *z = sqlite3VListNumToName(pParse->pVList, pExpr->iColumn);
-        assert( pExpr->u.zToken[0]=='?' || strcmp(pExpr->u.zToken, z)==0 );
+        assert( pExpr->u.zToken[0]=='?' || (z && !strcmp(pExpr->u.zToken, z)) );
         pParse->pVList[0] = 0; /* Indicate VList may no longer be enlarged */
         sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(v, (char*)z, P4_STATIC);
       }
@@ -100817,7 +102637,8 @@
         r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pLeft, &regFree1);
         r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
         codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
-            r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | p5);
+            r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | p5,
+            ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_Commuted));
         assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
         assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
         assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
@@ -100969,47 +102790,14 @@
         sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unknown function: %s()", zId);
         break;
       }
-
-      /* Attempt a direct implementation of the built-in COALESCE() and
-      ** IFNULL() functions.  This avoids unnecessary evaluation of
-      ** arguments past the first non-NULL argument.
-      */
-      if( pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_COALESCE ){
-        int endCoalesce = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(pParse);
-        assert( nFarg>=2 );
-        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pFarg->a[0].pExpr, target);
-        for(i=1; i<nFarg; i++){
-          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NotNull, target, endCoalesce);
-          VdbeCoverage(v);
-          sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pFarg->a[i].pExpr, target);
-        }
-        sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, endCoalesce);
-        break;
-      }
-
-      /* The UNLIKELY() function is a no-op.  The result is the value
-      ** of the first argument.
-      */
-      if( pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_UNLIKELY ){
-        assert( nFarg>=1 );
-        return sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pFarg->a[0].pExpr, target);
-      }
-
-#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
-      /* The AFFINITY() function evaluates to a string that describes
-      ** the type affinity of the argument.  This is used for testing of
-      ** the SQLite type logic.
-      */
-      if( pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_AFFINITY ){
-        const char *azAff[] = { "blob", "text", "numeric", "integer", "real" };
-        char aff;
-        assert( nFarg==1 );
-        aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pFarg->a[0].pExpr);
-        sqlite3VdbeLoadString(v, target, 
-                              aff ? azAff[aff-SQLITE_AFF_BLOB] : "none");
-        return target;
-      }
-#endif
+      if( pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_INLINE ){
+        assert( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE)==0 );
+        assert( (pDef->funcFlags & SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT)==0 );
+        return exprCodeInlineFunction(pParse, pFarg,
+             SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(pDef->pUserData), target);
+      }else if( pDef->funcFlags & (SQLITE_FUNC_DIRECT|SQLITE_FUNC_UNSAFE) ){
+        sqlite3ExprFunctionUsable(pParse, pExpr, pDef);
+      }
 
       for(i=0; i<nFarg; i++){
         if( i<32 && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pFarg->a[i].pExpr) ){
@@ -101086,12 +102874,15 @@
       }else
 #endif
       {
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, pParse->iSelfTab ? OP_PureFunc0 : OP_Function0,
-                          constMask, r1, target, (char*)pDef, P4_FUNCDEF);
-        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, (u8)nFarg);
-      }
-      if( nFarg && constMask==0 ){
-        sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r1, nFarg);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddFunctionCall(pParse, constMask, r1, target, nFarg,
+                                   pDef, pExpr->op2);
+      }
+      if( nFarg ){
+        if( constMask==0 ){
+          sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r1, nFarg);
+        }else{
+          sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(pParse, r1, nFarg, constMask, 1);
+        }
       }
       return target;
     }
@@ -101114,8 +102905,8 @@
         pExpr->pLeft->iTable = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
       }
       assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_SELECT );
-      if( pExpr->iTable
-       && pExpr->iTable!=(n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft)) 
+      if( pExpr->iTable!=0
+       && pExpr->iTable!=(n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft))
       ){
         sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%d columns assigned %d values",
                                 pExpr->iTable, n);
@@ -101185,17 +102976,19 @@
       **   p1==2   ->    old.b         p1==5   ->    new.b       
       */
       Table *pTab = pExpr->y.pTab;
-      int p1 = pExpr->iTable * (pTab->nCol+1) + 1 + pExpr->iColumn;
+      int iCol = pExpr->iColumn;
+      int p1 = pExpr->iTable * (pTab->nCol+1) + 1 
+                     + sqlite3TableColumnToStorage(pTab, iCol);
 
       assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->iTable==1 );
-      assert( pExpr->iColumn>=-1 && pExpr->iColumn<pTab->nCol );
-      assert( pTab->iPKey<0 || pExpr->iColumn!=pTab->iPKey );
+      assert( iCol>=-1 && iCol<pTab->nCol );
+      assert( pTab->iPKey<0 || iCol!=pTab->iPKey );
       assert( p1>=0 && p1<(pTab->nCol*2+2) );
 
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Param, p1, target);
       VdbeComment((v, "r[%d]=%s.%s", target,
         (pExpr->iTable ? "new" : "old"),
-        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->y.pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].zName)
+        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->y.pTab->aCol[iCol].zName)
       ));
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
@@ -101204,9 +102997,7 @@
       **
       ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-60985-57662 SQLite will convert the value back to
       ** floating point when extracting it from the record.  */
-      if( pExpr->iColumn>=0 
-       && pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].affinity==SQLITE_AFF_REAL
-      ){
+      if( iCol>=0 && pTab->aCol[iCol].affinity==SQLITE_AFF_REAL ){
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_RealAffinity, target);
       }
 #endif
@@ -101218,10 +103009,23 @@
       break;
     }
 
+    /* TK_IF_NULL_ROW Expr nodes are inserted ahead of expressions
+    ** that derive from the right-hand table of a LEFT JOIN.  The
+    ** Expr.iTable value is the table number for the right-hand table.
+    ** The expression is only evaluated if that table is not currently
+    ** on a LEFT JOIN NULL row.
+    */
     case TK_IF_NULL_ROW: {
       int addrINR;
+      u8 okConstFactor = pParse->okConstFactor;
       addrINR = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNullRow, pExpr->iTable);
+      /* Temporarily disable factoring of constant expressions, since
+      ** even though expressions may appear to be constant, they are not
+      ** really constant because they originate from the right-hand side
+      ** of a LEFT JOIN. */
+      pParse->okConstFactor = 0;
       inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
+      pParse->okConstFactor = okConstFactor;
       sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrINR);
       sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(v, addrINR, inReg);
       break;
@@ -101248,7 +103052,7 @@
     ** or if there is no matching Ei, the ELSE term Y, or if there is
     ** no ELSE term, NULL.
     */
-    default: assert( op==TK_CASE ); {
+    case TK_CASE: {
       int endLabel;                     /* GOTO label for end of CASE stmt */
       int nextCase;                     /* GOTO label for next WHEN clause */
       int nExpr;                        /* 2x number of WHEN terms */
@@ -101258,6 +103062,8 @@
       Expr opCompare;                   /* The X==Ei expression */
       Expr *pX;                         /* The X expression */
       Expr *pTest = 0;                  /* X==Ei (form A) or just Ei (form B) */
+      Expr *pDel = 0;
+      sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
 
       assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) && pExpr->x.pList );
       assert(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr > 0);
@@ -101266,13 +103072,17 @@
       nExpr = pEList->nExpr;
       endLabel = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(pParse);
       if( (pX = pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
-        exprNodeCopy(&tempX, pX);
+        pDel = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pX, 0);
+        if( db->mallocFailed ){
+          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDel);
+          break;
+        }
         testcase( pX->op==TK_COLUMN );
-        exprToRegister(&tempX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &tempX, &regFree1));
+        exprToRegister(pDel, exprCodeVector(pParse, pDel, &regFree1));
         testcase( regFree1==0 );
         memset(&opCompare, 0, sizeof(opCompare));
         opCompare.op = TK_EQ;
-        opCompare.pLeft = &tempX;
+        opCompare.pLeft = pDel;
         pTest = &opCompare;
         /* Ticket b351d95f9cd5ef17e9d9dbae18f5ca8611190001:
         ** The value in regFree1 might get SCopy-ed into the file result.
@@ -101300,32 +103110,33 @@
       }else{
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
       }
+      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDel);
       sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, endLabel);
       break;
     }
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
     case TK_RAISE: {
-      assert( pExpr->affinity==OE_Rollback 
-           || pExpr->affinity==OE_Abort
-           || pExpr->affinity==OE_Fail
-           || pExpr->affinity==OE_Ignore
+      assert( pExpr->affExpr==OE_Rollback 
+           || pExpr->affExpr==OE_Abort
+           || pExpr->affExpr==OE_Fail
+           || pExpr->affExpr==OE_Ignore
       );
       if( !pParse->pTriggerTab ){
         sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse,
                        "RAISE() may only be used within a trigger-program");
         return 0;
       }
-      if( pExpr->affinity==OE_Abort ){
+      if( pExpr->affExpr==OE_Abort ){
         sqlite3MayAbort(pParse);
       }
       assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
-      if( pExpr->affinity==OE_Ignore ){
+      if( pExpr->affExpr==OE_Ignore ){
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(
             v, OP_Halt, SQLITE_OK, OE_Ignore, 0, pExpr->u.zToken,0);
         VdbeCoverage(v);
       }else{
         sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_TRIGGER,
-                              pExpr->affinity, pExpr->u.zToken, 0, 0);
+                              pExpr->affExpr, pExpr->u.zToken, 0, 0);
       }
 
       break;
@@ -101390,7 +103201,7 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, int *pReg){
   int r2;
-  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
+  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pExpr);
   if( ConstFactorOk(pParse)
    && pExpr->op!=TK_REGISTER
    && sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(pExpr)
@@ -101419,14 +103230,16 @@
   int inReg;
 
   assert( target>0 && target<=pParse->nMem );
-  if( pExpr && pExpr->op==TK_REGISTER ){
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(pParse->pVdbe, OP_Copy, pExpr->iTable, target);
-  }else{
-    inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr, target);
-    assert( pParse->pVdbe!=0 || pParse->db->mallocFailed );
-    if( inReg!=target && pParse->pVdbe ){
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(pParse->pVdbe, OP_SCopy, inReg, target);
-    }
+  inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr, target);
+  assert( pParse->pVdbe!=0 || pParse->db->mallocFailed );
+  if( inReg!=target && pParse->pVdbe ){
+    u8 op;
+    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_Subquery) ){
+      op = OP_Copy;
+    }else{
+      op = OP_SCopy;
+    }
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(pParse->pVdbe, op, inReg, target);
   }
 }
 
@@ -101457,30 +103270,6 @@
 }
 
 /*
-** Generate code that evaluates the given expression and puts the result
-** in register target.
-**
-** Also make a copy of the expression results into another "cache" register
-** and modify the expression so that the next time it is evaluated,
-** the result is a copy of the cache register.
-**
-** This routine is used for expressions that are used multiple 
-** times.  They are evaluated once and the results of the expression
-** are reused.
-*/
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, int target){
-  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
-  int iMem;
-
-  assert( target>0 );
-  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_REGISTER );
-  sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pExpr, target);
-  iMem = ++pParse->nMem;
-  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Copy, target, iMem);
-  exprToRegister(pExpr, iMem);
-}
-
-/*
 ** Generate code that pushes the value of every element of the given
 ** expression list into a sequence of registers beginning at target.
 **
@@ -101543,6 +103332,7 @@
          && (pOp=sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, -1))->opcode==OP_Copy
          && pOp->p1+pOp->p3+1==inReg
          && pOp->p2+pOp->p3+1==target+i
+         && pOp->p5==0  /* The do-not-merge flag must be clear */
         ){
           pOp->p3++;
         }else{
@@ -101581,40 +103371,44 @@
   void (*xJump)(Parse*,Expr*,int,int), /* Action to take */
   int jumpIfNull    /* Take the jump if the BETWEEN is NULL */
 ){
- Expr exprAnd;     /* The AND operator in  x>=y AND x<=z  */
+  Expr exprAnd;     /* The AND operator in  x>=y AND x<=z  */
   Expr compLeft;    /* The  x>=y  term */
   Expr compRight;   /* The  x<=z  term */
-  Expr exprX;       /* The  x  subexpression */
   int regFree1 = 0; /* Temporary use register */
+  Expr *pDel = 0;
+  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
 
   memset(&compLeft, 0, sizeof(Expr));
   memset(&compRight, 0, sizeof(Expr));
   memset(&exprAnd, 0, sizeof(Expr));
 
   assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
-  exprNodeCopy(&exprX, pExpr->pLeft);
-  exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
-  exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
-  exprAnd.pRight = &compRight;
-  compLeft.op = TK_GE;
-  compLeft.pLeft = &exprX;
-  compLeft.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
-  compRight.op = TK_LE;
-  compRight.pLeft = &exprX;
-  compRight.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
-  exprToRegister(&exprX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &exprX, &regFree1));
-  if( xJump ){
-    xJump(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
-  }else{
-    /* Mark the expression is being from the ON or USING clause of a join
-    ** so that the sqlite3ExprCodeTarget() routine will not attempt to move
-    ** it into the Parse.pConstExpr list.  We should use a new bit for this,
-    ** for clarity, but we are out of bits in the Expr.flags field so we
-    ** have to reuse the EP_FromJoin bit.  Bummer. */
-    exprX.flags |= EP_FromJoin;
-    sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, &exprAnd, dest);
-  }
-  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree1);
+  pDel = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
+  if( db->mallocFailed==0 ){
+    exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
+    exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
+    exprAnd.pRight = &compRight;
+    compLeft.op = TK_GE;
+    compLeft.pLeft = pDel;
+    compLeft.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
+    compRight.op = TK_LE;
+    compRight.pLeft = pDel;
+    compRight.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
+    exprToRegister(pDel, exprCodeVector(pParse, pDel, &regFree1));
+    if( xJump ){
+      xJump(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
+    }else{
+      /* Mark the expression is being from the ON or USING clause of a join
+      ** so that the sqlite3ExprCodeTarget() routine will not attempt to move
+      ** it into the Parse.pConstExpr list.  We should use a new bit for this,
+      ** for clarity, but we are out of bits in the Expr.flags field so we
+      ** have to reuse the EP_FromJoin bit.  Bummer. */
+      pDel->flags |= EP_FromJoin;
+      sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, &exprAnd, dest);
+    }
+    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree1);
+  }
+  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDel);
 
   /* Ensure adequate test coverage */
   testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfTrue  && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1==0 );
@@ -101713,7 +103507,7 @@
       r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
       r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
       codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
-                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
+                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull, ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_Commuted));
       assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
       assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
       assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
@@ -101888,7 +103682,7 @@
       r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
       r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
       codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
-                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
+                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull,ExprHasProperty(pExpr,EP_Commuted));
       assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
       assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
       assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
@@ -102053,20 +103847,17 @@
     return 2;
   }
   if( pA->op!=TK_COLUMN && pA->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN && pA->u.zToken ){
-    if( pA->op==TK_FUNCTION ){
+    if( pA->op==TK_FUNCTION || pA->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION ){
       if( sqlite3StrICmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ) return 2;
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
-      /* Justification for the assert():
-      ** window functions have p->op==TK_FUNCTION but aggregate functions
-      ** have p->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION.  So any comparison between an aggregate
-      ** function and a window function should have failed before reaching
-      ** this point.  And, it is not possible to have a window function and
-      ** a scalar function with the same name and number of arguments.  So
-      ** if we reach this point, either A and B both window functions or
-      ** neither are a window functions. */
-      assert( ExprHasProperty(pA,EP_WinFunc)==ExprHasProperty(pB,EP_WinFunc) );
+      assert( pA->op==pB->op );
+      if( ExprHasProperty(pA,EP_WinFunc)!=ExprHasProperty(pB,EP_WinFunc) ){
+        return 2;
+      }
       if( ExprHasProperty(pA,EP_WinFunc) ){
-        if( sqlite3WindowCompare(pParse,pA->y.pWin,pB->y.pWin)!=0 ) return 2;
+        if( sqlite3WindowCompare(pParse, pA->y.pWin, pB->y.pWin, 1)!=0 ){
+          return 2;
+        }
       }
 #endif
     }else if( pA->op==TK_NULL ){
@@ -102077,7 +103868,8 @@
       return 2;
     }
   }
-  if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
+  if( (pA->flags & (EP_Distinct|EP_Commuted))
+     != (pB->flags & (EP_Distinct|EP_Commuted)) ) return 2;
   if( (combinedFlags & EP_TokenOnly)==0 ){
     if( combinedFlags & EP_xIsSelect ) return 2;
     if( (combinedFlags & EP_FixedCol)==0
@@ -102089,17 +103881,33 @@
      && (combinedFlags & EP_Reduced)==0
     ){
       if( pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
-      if( pA->op2!=pB->op2 ) return 2;
-      if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable 
-       && (pA->iTable!=iTab || NEVER(pB->iTable>=0)) ) return 2;
+      if( pA->op2!=pB->op2 ){
+        if( pA->op==TK_TRUTH ) return 2;
+        if( pA->op==TK_FUNCTION && iTab<0 ){
+          /* Ex: CREATE TABLE t1(a CHECK( a<julianday('now') ));
+          **     INSERT INTO t1(a) VALUES(julianday('now')+10);
+          ** Without this test, sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit() will run on the
+          ** the julianday() of INSERT first, and remember that expression.
+          ** Then sqlite3ExprCodeInit() will see the julianday() in the CHECK
+          ** constraint as redundant, reusing the one from the INSERT, even
+          ** though the julianday() in INSERT lacks the critical NC_IsCheck
+          ** flag.  See ticket [830277d9db6c3ba1] (2019-10-30)
+          */
+          return 2;
+        }
+      }
+      if( pA->op!=TK_IN && pA->iTable!=pB->iTable && pA->iTable!=iTab ){
+        return 2;
+      }
     }
   }
   return 0;
 }
 
 /*
-** Compare two ExprList objects.  Return 0 if they are identical and 
-** non-zero if they differ in any way.
+** Compare two ExprList objects.  Return 0 if they are identical, 1
+** if they are certainly different, or 2 if it is not possible to 
+** determine if they are identical or not.
 **
 ** If any subelement of pB has Expr.iTable==(-1) then it is allowed
 ** to compare equal to an equivalent element in pA with Expr.iTable==iTab.
@@ -102118,10 +103926,11 @@
   if( pA==0 || pB==0 ) return 1;
   if( pA->nExpr!=pB->nExpr ) return 1;
   for(i=0; i<pA->nExpr; i++){
+    int res;
     Expr *pExprA = pA->a[i].pExpr;
     Expr *pExprB = pB->a[i].pExpr;
-    if( pA->a[i].sortOrder!=pB->a[i].sortOrder ) return 1;
-    if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0, pExprA, pExprB, iTab) ) return 1;
+    if( pA->a[i].sortFlags!=pB->a[i].sortFlags ) return 1;
+    if( (res = sqlite3ExprCompare(0, pExprA, pExprB, iTab)) ) return res;
   }
   return 0;
 }
@@ -102132,42 +103941,47 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompareSkip(Expr *pA, Expr *pB, int iTab){
   return sqlite3ExprCompare(0,
-             sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pA),
-             sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pB),
+             sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pA),
+             sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(pB),
              iTab);
 }
 
 /*
 ** Return non-zero if Expr p can only be true if pNN is not NULL.
+**
+** Or if seenNot is true, return non-zero if Expr p can only be
+** non-NULL if pNN is not NULL
 */
 static int exprImpliesNotNull(
   Parse *pParse,      /* Parsing context */
   Expr *p,            /* The expression to be checked */
   Expr *pNN,          /* The expression that is NOT NULL */
   int iTab,           /* Table being evaluated */
-  int seenNot         /* True if p is an operand of NOT */
+  int seenNot         /* Return true only if p can be any non-NULL value */
 ){
   assert( p );
   assert( pNN );
-  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, p, pNN, iTab)==0 ) return 1;
+  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, p, pNN, iTab)==0 ){
+    return pNN->op!=TK_NULL;
+  }
   switch( p->op ){
     case TK_IN: {
       if( seenNot && ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ) return 0;
       assert( ExprHasProperty(p,EP_xIsSelect)
            || (p->x.pList!=0 && p->x.pList->nExpr>0) );
-      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, seenNot);
+      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, 1);
     }
     case TK_BETWEEN: {
       ExprList *pList = p->x.pList;
       assert( pList!=0 );
       assert( pList->nExpr==2 );
       if( seenNot ) return 0;
-      if( exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, pList->a[0].pExpr, pNN, iTab, seenNot)
-       || exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, pList->a[1].pExpr, pNN, iTab, seenNot)
+      if( exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, pList->a[0].pExpr, pNN, iTab, 1)
+       || exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, pList->a[1].pExpr, pNN, iTab, 1)
       ){
         return 1;
       }
-      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, seenNot);
+      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, 1);
     }
     case TK_EQ:
     case TK_NE:
@@ -102177,20 +103991,21 @@
     case TK_GE:
     case TK_PLUS:
     case TK_MINUS:
+    case TK_BITOR:
+    case TK_LSHIFT:
+    case TK_RSHIFT: 
+    case TK_CONCAT: 
+      seenNot = 1;
+      /* Fall thru */
     case TK_STAR:
     case TK_REM:
     case TK_BITAND:
-    case TK_BITOR:
-    case TK_SLASH:
-    case TK_LSHIFT:
-    case TK_RSHIFT: 
-    case TK_CONCAT: {
+    case TK_SLASH: {
       if( exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pRight, pNN, iTab, seenNot) ) return 1;
       /* Fall thru into the next case */
     }
     case TK_SPAN:
     case TK_COLLATE:
-    case TK_BITNOT:
     case TK_UPLUS:
     case TK_UMINUS: {
       return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, seenNot);
@@ -102198,8 +104013,9 @@
     case TK_TRUTH: {
       if( seenNot ) return 0;
       if( p->op2!=TK_IS ) return 0;
-      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, seenNot);
-    }
+      return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, 1);
+    }
+    case TK_BITNOT:
     case TK_NOT: {
       return exprImpliesNotNull(pParse, p->pLeft, pNN, iTab, 1);
     }
@@ -102251,7 +104067,7 @@
 }
 
 /*
-** This is the Expr node callback for sqlite3ExprImpliesNotNullRow().
+** This is the Expr node callback for sqlite3ExprImpliesNonNullRow().
 ** If the expression node requires that the table at pWalker->iCur
 ** have one or more non-NULL column, then set pWalker->eCode to 1 and abort.
 **
@@ -102265,23 +104081,25 @@
   if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) return WRC_Prune;
   switch( pExpr->op ){
     case TK_ISNOT:
-    case TK_NOT:
     case TK_ISNULL:
     case TK_NOTNULL:
     case TK_IS:
     case TK_OR:
+    case TK_VECTOR:
     case TK_CASE:
     case TK_IN:
     case TK_FUNCTION:
+    case TK_TRUTH:
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
-      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NOT );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_ISNULL );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NOTNULL );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IS );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_OR );
+      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_VECTOR );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_CASE );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION );
+      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_TRUTH );
       return WRC_Prune;
     case TK_COLUMN:
       if( pWalker->u.iCur==pExpr->iTable ){
@@ -102290,6 +104108,23 @@
       }
       return WRC_Prune;
 
+    case TK_AND:
+      if( pWalker->eCode==0 ){
+        sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pLeft);
+        if( pWalker->eCode ){
+          pWalker->eCode = 0;
+          sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pRight);
+        }
+      }
+      return WRC_Prune;
+
+    case TK_BETWEEN:
+      if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, pExpr->pLeft)==WRC_Abort ){
+        assert( pWalker->eCode );
+        return WRC_Abort;
+      }
+      return WRC_Prune;
+
     /* Virtual tables are allowed to use constraints like x=NULL.  So
     ** a term of the form x=y does not prove that y is not null if x
     ** is the column of a virtual table */
@@ -102310,6 +104145,7 @@
       ){
        return WRC_Prune;
       }
+
     default:
       return WRC_Continue;
   }
@@ -102339,15 +104175,14 @@
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprImpliesNonNullRow(Expr *p, int iTab){
   Walker w;
-  p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(p);
-  while( p ){
-    if( p->op==TK_NOTNULL ){
-      p = p->pLeft;
-    }else if( p->op==TK_AND ){
+  p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollateAndLikely(p);
+  if( p==0 ) return 0;
+  if( p->op==TK_NOTNULL ){
+    p = p->pLeft;
+  }else{
+    while( p->op==TK_AND ){
       if( sqlite3ExprImpliesNonNullRow(p->pLeft, iTab) ) return 1;
       p = p->pRight;
-    }else{
-      break;
     }
   }
   w.xExprCallback = impliesNotNullRow;
@@ -102379,7 +104214,7 @@
 static int exprIdxCover(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
   if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN
    && pExpr->iTable==pWalker->u.pIdxCover->iCur
-   && sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pWalker->u.pIdxCover->pIdx, pExpr->iColumn)<0
+   && sqlite3TableColumnToIndex(pWalker->u.pIdxCover->pIdx, pExpr->iColumn)<0
   ){
     pWalker->eCode = 1;
     return WRC_Abort;
@@ -102430,12 +104265,13 @@
 ** Count the number of references to columns.
 */
 static int exprSrcCount(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
-  /* The NEVER() on the second term is because sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc()
-  ** is always called before sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates() and so the
-  ** TK_COLUMNs have not yet been converted into TK_AGG_COLUMN.  If
-  ** sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc() is used differently in the future, the
-  ** NEVER() will need to be removed. */
-  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN || NEVER(pExpr->op==TK_AGG_COLUMN) ){
+  /* There was once a NEVER() on the second term on the grounds that
+  ** sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc() was always called before 
+  ** sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates() and so the TK_COLUMNs have not yet 
+  ** been converted into TK_AGG_COLUMN. But this is no longer true due
+  ** to window functions - sqlite3WindowRewrite() may now indirectly call
+  ** FunctionUsesThisSrc() when creating a new sub-select. */
+  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN || pExpr->op==TK_AGG_COLUMN ){
     int i;
     struct SrcCount *p = pWalker->u.pSrcCount;
     SrcList *pSrc = p->pSrc;
@@ -102445,7 +104281,10 @@
     }
     if( i<nSrc ){
       p->nThis++;
-    }else{
+    }else if( nSrc==0 || pExpr->iTable<pSrc->a[0].iCursor ){
+      /* In a well-formed parse tree (no name resolution errors),
+      ** TK_COLUMN nodes with smaller Expr.iTable values are in an
+      ** outer context.  Those are the only ones to count as "other" */
       p->nOther++;
     }
   }
@@ -102462,13 +104301,19 @@
   Walker w;
   struct SrcCount cnt;
   assert( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION );
+  memset(&w, 0, sizeof(w));
   w.xExprCallback = exprSrcCount;
-  w.xSelectCallback = 0;
+  w.xSelectCallback = sqlite3SelectWalkNoop;
   w.u.pSrcCount = &cnt;
   cnt.pSrc = pSrcList;
   cnt.nThis = 0;
   cnt.nOther = 0;
   sqlite3WalkExprList(&w, pExpr->x.pList);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WINDOWFUNC
+  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_WinFunc) ){
+    sqlite3WalkExpr(&w, pExpr->y.pWin->pFilter);
+  }
+#endif
   return cnt.nThis>0 || cnt.nOther==0;
 }
 
@@ -102697,8 +104542,11 @@
 ** purpose.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(Parse *pParse, int iReg){
-  if( iReg && pParse->nTempReg<ArraySize(pParse->aTempReg) ){
-    pParse->aTempReg[pParse->nTempReg++] = iReg;
+  if( iReg ){
+    sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(pParse, iReg, 1, 0, 0);
+    if( pParse->nTempReg<ArraySize(pParse->aTempReg) ){
+      pParse->aTempReg[pParse->nTempReg++] = iReg;
+    }
   }
 }
 
@@ -102724,6 +104572,7 @@
     sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, iReg);
     return;
   }
+  sqlite3VdbeReleaseRegisters(pParse, iReg, nReg, 0, 0);
   if( nReg>pParse->nRangeReg ){
     pParse->nRangeReg = nReg;
     pParse->iRangeReg = iReg;
@@ -102732,6 +104581,11 @@
 
 /*
 ** Mark all temporary registers as being unavailable for reuse.
+**
+** Always invoke this procedure after coding a subroutine or co-routine
+** that might be invoked from other parts of the code, to ensure that
+** the sub/co-routine does not use registers in common with the code that
+** invokes the sub/co-routine.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(Parse *pParse){
   pParse->nTempReg = 0;
@@ -102796,9 +104650,8 @@
 static int isAlterableTable(Parse *pParse, Table *pTab){
   if( 0==sqlite3StrNICmp(pTab->zName, "sqlite_", 7) 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
-   || ( (pTab->tabFlags & TF_Shadow) 
-     && (pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_Defensive)
-     && pParse->db->nVdbeExec==0
+   || ( (pTab->tabFlags & TF_Shadow)!=0
+        && sqlite3ReadOnlyShadowTables(pParse->db)
    )
 #endif
   ){
@@ -102901,8 +104754,8 @@
   if( SQLITE_OK!=isAlterableTable(pParse, pTab) ){
     goto exit_rename_table;
   }
-  if( SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3CheckObjectName(pParse, zName) ){ goto
-    exit_rename_table;
+  if( SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3CheckObjectName(pParse,zName,"table",zName) ){
+    goto exit_rename_table;
   }
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW
@@ -103063,14 +104916,6 @@
   }
 #endif
 
-  /* If the default value for the new column was specified with a 
-  ** literal NULL, then set pDflt to 0. This simplifies checking
-  ** for an SQL NULL default below.
-  */
-  assert( pDflt==0 || pDflt->op==TK_SPAN );
-  if( pDflt && pDflt->pLeft->op==TK_NULL ){
-    pDflt = 0;
-  }
 
   /* Check that the new column is not specified as PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE.
   ** If there is a NOT NULL constraint, then the default value for the
@@ -103084,35 +104929,49 @@
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "Cannot add a UNIQUE column");
     return;
   }
-  if( (db->flags&SQLITE_ForeignKeys) && pNew->pFKey && pDflt ){
-    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
-        "Cannot add a REFERENCES column with non-NULL default value");
-    return;
-  }
-  if( pCol->notNull && !pDflt ){
-    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
-        "Cannot add a NOT NULL column with default value NULL");<